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# Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart

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Manager
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2012, 03:37
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

This ques seems very simple... But i doubt OA

Source: Grockit
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2012, 04:42
shanmugamgsn wrote:
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

This ques seems very simple... But i doubt OA

Source: Grockit

this is classic case of Cause and effect argument.
Cause -> periodontal disease PD
Effect -> gum disease and heart disease GD and HD
By POE we can reach B, E has the wrong comparisons. other 3 choices are just wrong

Cheers
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2012, 19:52
Jp27 wrote:
shanmugamgsn wrote:
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

This ques seems very simple... But i doubt OA

Source: Grockit

this is classic case of Cause and effect argument.
Cause -> periodontal disease PD
Effect -> gum disease and heart disease GD and HD
By POE we can reach B, E has the wrong comparisons. other 3 choices are just wrong

Cheers

Thanks JP27

But i'm still confused....
How E is wrong comparison????

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

No HD ---> No PD

For weaken questions choices with "effect to cause" is correct answer...
This is wat stated in E.

But how come B will be answer its no way related to weaken or strengthen... without our external knowledge we cannot determine B ????
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2012, 20:30
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?
this is a scenario which means if A, B occur simultaneously means A causes B;
to weaken we will tell
i)When A occurs, B does not happen
ii)B happens even whenA is not there
iii)C causes B not A

To strengthen we need to do the following
i) Say C is not the cause
ii)give an example when A occurs B occurs
iii)when Not A -> Not B
iv)possible problems with the data

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.
strengthens the argument telling missing link
B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
giving a alternative cause execise and healthy habits that can lead to , also here it is not that A causes B , it tells b is likely also..
C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.
strengthens the argument telling missing link
D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
it has no effect , to think this strengthens is out of scope..we don't know hthe effects of processed food
E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.
strengthens as it tells ; no periodental low heart disease but cardiac transplant history more chances Periodontal disease not A -> not B

Please correct me if i m wrong somewhere...
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2012, 04:48
sujit2k7 wrote:
iii)when Not A -> Not B

I think the above is inccorect to say. Rather, Not B -> Not A.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2012, 07:46
stoy4o wrote:
sujit2k7 wrote:
iii)when Not A -> Not B

I think the above is inccorect to say. Rather, Not B -> Not A.

For strengthen question type when cause does not occur the effect does not occur...

if storm causes tornadoes then this can be strengthened by saying no tornado happens when there is no tide.[absence of the cause tide , => absence of the effect tornado]

Plz correct if my understanding is wrong....
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2012, 08:18
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This is not a good question at all though Grockit is one of my favourite company.

I can reach the answer by POE but is not really well formulated.

My opinion
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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31 May 2013, 23:02
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I think B is completely out of scope ... As it eating a healthy diet or brushing doesn't correlate to the cause and effect relationship ... However I will go with E as it sets some correlation that might be the effect might have lead to the cause instead of vice versa though that is also not properly drawn ..

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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart diseas [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2014, 08:23
carcass wrote:
This is not a good question at all though Grockit is one of my favourite company.

I can reach the answer by POE but is not really well formulated.

My opinion

Carcass would you please elaborate further on the answer choices? I also found this question difficult to follow

Thanks
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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14 Feb 2014, 02:34
can anyone pls explain y B is OA.. it seems to strengthen the argument.
People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
means NO periodontal disease ----->NO cardiovascular problems

Regards,
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2014, 04:26
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Hey MSJ,

I agree, this is a tricky one. It's deffo a 700+ level question. And at this level they love to play tricks, and a key trick is with messing with lots of negatives.

In this question. You need to flip the logic a couple of times.

B says: Teeth brushers are excersisers. Therefore people who have healthy hearts have healthy teeth

non teeth brushers are not excersisers. This gives a 'nurture' argument for the link in the two diseases. Therefore it weakens the 'nature' argument in the passage.

So B is correct.

Tricky

James
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2014, 23:24
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shanmugamgsn wrote:
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

This ques seems very simple... But i doubt OA

Source: Grockit

Gosh took more than 3 minutes to arrive at the correct answer. I was stuck between B and E. Finally picked B.

Option E)
No HD -> No PD => PD -> HD actually the conclusion (Strengthens the conclusion)

Option B)
No PD -> No HD => HD -> PD Weakens the conclusion.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2014, 11:16
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hey Plumber250,

thank u for such an elabrative explanation. that really helped.

+1 kudos

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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2014, 04:56
plumber250 wrote:
Hey MSJ,

I agree, this is a tricky one. It's deffo a 700+ level question. And at this level they love to play tricks, and a key trick is with messing with lots of negatives.

In this question. You need to flip the logic a couple of times.

B says: Teeth brushers are excersisers. Therefore people who have healthy hearts have healthy teeth

non teeth brushers are not excersisers. This gives a 'nurture' argument for the link in the two diseases. Therefore it weakens the 'nature' argument in the passage.

So B is correct.

Tricky

James

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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2014, 00:06
AnmolKukreja wrote:
plumber250 wrote:
Hey MSJ,

I agree, this is a tricky one. It's deffo a 700+ level question. And at this level they love to play tricks, and a key trick is with messing with lots of negatives.

In this question. You need to flip the logic a couple of times.

B says: Teeth brushers are excersisers. Therefore people who have healthy hearts have healthy teeth

non teeth brushers are not excersisers. This gives a 'nurture' argument for the link in the two diseases. Therefore it weakens the 'nature' argument in the passage.

So B is correct.

Tricky

James

instead of thinking too hard, I just thought cardiac transplant is way far away from cardiac disease. cardiac transplant is not at all necessarily caused by cardiac disease (it could be from accident or could be from baby birth). at least this fact should not be a general concept GMAC assumes you to know. so I concluded that E is out of scope by saying "cardiac transplant" instead of "cardiac disease". possibily a shell game?

however, B also sounds odd, yet I can imagine GMAC assumes you to know the general idea of "if you exercise, you are generally healthier" thus it is reasonable to pick B as the answer.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2014, 11:52
I think the answer is actually D. Why is the OA B? Can someone explain? Here is my reasoning for D. Tell me where I am wrong. |
One way to weaken a corelation-causaility question is to show another source that causes the supposed effect (heart disease). D does this by showing that it is not the tooth disease but perhaps the dietary habits of folks with the tooth disease that might be causing the heart problems.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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25 May 2014, 17:01

Thanks!
Cheeers
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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26 May 2014, 00:43
plumber250 wrote:
Hey MSJ,

I agree, this is a tricky one. It's deffo a 700+ level question. And at this level they love to play tricks, and a key trick is with messing with lots of negatives.

In this question. You need to flip the logic a couple of times.

B says: Teeth brushers are excersisers. Therefore people who have healthy hearts have healthy teeth

non teeth brushers are not excersisers. This gives a 'nurture' argument for the link in the two diseases. Therefore it weakens the 'nature' argument in the passage.

So B is correct.

Tricky

James

If it can be B..then D is a plausible answer too...Why are we rejecting D-For the reasons that we don't know what processed food or ice- cream has to do with the respective diseases
In B
1. I am not sure what the diseases are and how are they caused..So does brushing teeth prevent this pre... disease is one

Not a good question I believe..Can Carcass or some also throw light on there rejection of D in POE
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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26 May 2014, 23:34
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate. --strengthener

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet. -- here we are assuming that brushing and flossing can avoid pirodental diseases further exercise and healthy diet avoid heart diseases -- to much to assume.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
Strengthener -- gum problem --> cut in good food --> heart disease.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.
It just describes the simultaneity of two factors not reverse causality.
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Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2014, 13:43
I chose E in this one.
It reverses the cause and effect - people who already had heart problems develop the dental ones. This weakens the logic that the dental problems are the ones which cause the heart problems.
In B there is too much for me to assume... exercise is out of scope for this one, no?
When are we allowed to introduce new facts and when are we not?
Re: Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart   [#permalink] 14 Sep 2014, 13:43

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