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# Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart

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Director
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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Updated on: 30 Jan 2012, 15:04
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A)Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

Any idea why the answer is C and not D?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Originally posted by enigma123 on 29 Jan 2012, 14:33.
Last edited by enigma123 on 30 Jan 2012, 15:04, edited 2 times in total.
Director
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2012, 14:41
Sorry guys - the question says "Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 08:50
I still feel that D is the best option available.C in fact strengthens the argument by stating that that infected gums leads to irritation of the arteries.Only option D weakens the argument by stating that change in food habits have lead to the heart disease and not periodontal disease .
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 09:36
B for me. It indicates that there is no relation between coronary artery disease and gum disease. It's a person's habit that leads to the occurrence of both the diseases.

As far as D goes, I think it strengthens the argument, since it would explain one way that periodontal disease indirectly causes consumption of unhealthy foods, which would increase the occurrence of negative health effects.

Are you sure OA is C?

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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 10:40
How can the OA is C???
nowhere close...
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 15:05
My apologies - correct answer is B. Please let me know if you need an explanation and I will explain. I did get it right in the end. Actually, hamm's explanation is correct.
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2012, 03:48
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Can you please explain the OA. i was struck between B and E. How do you eliminate E here?.
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Re: Gum and heart disease [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2012, 05:34
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maheshsrini wrote:
Can you please explain the OA. i was struck between B and E. How do you eliminate E here?.

All E establishes is correlation. It basically just restates the evidence from the prompt that "periodontal disease and cardiovascular problems often occur in the same patients". There's no indication here which would be cause and which would be effect. Additionally, "cardiac transplant" is too narrow since it doesn't address any cardiovascular problems that might not result in a cardiac transplant.

The reason for picking B is quoted from above:
hamm0 wrote:
B for me. It indicates that there is no relation between coronary artery disease and gum disease. It's a person's habit that leads to the occurrence of both the diseases.

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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 11:24
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A. Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.
B. People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
C. Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.
D. People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

Another strange question... Is it just me or do you guys also think these questions are not true representation of actual GMAT style questions..
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16 Jul 2012, 11:56
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With this kind of the argument:

A and B happen in the same patient, then A => B.

How to weaken this conclusion. choice (D) states that, due to A ( periodontal disease), the eating habits of patients change, making the cause to the disease B ( cardiovascular disease).

Choice (E) is the reverse choice, strengthen the argument by assert that B not cause A. The 3 remain first answers are easy to spot, so I did not mention in my reasoning.
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16 Jul 2012, 12:04
IMO,

Premise;

dental ailment----->cardiac diseases

B. People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet

no dental diseases----->no cardiac diseases

weakens the argument by negating it
( Negation is not used here to find assumption by hitting the argument to see its consequences rather, negation is used to just weaken the argument)

(B) wins.
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16 Jul 2012, 12:11
Either Bacterial gum or infected gum(other than bacterial) is the subject of periodontics?
else all the ACs are looking similar to us.
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16 Jul 2012, 19:25
thevenus wrote:
IMO,

Premise;

dental ailment----->cardiac diseases

B. People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet

no dental diseases----->no cardiac diseases

weakens the argument by negating it
( Negation is not used here to find assumption by hitting the argument to see its consequences rather, negation is used to just weaken the argument)

(B) wins.

The conclusion of the argument = dental disease (A) cause cardiovascular disease (B)

Weaken the conclusion cannot be NOT (A) => NOT (B)
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16 Jul 2012, 21:45
I would say E.

A- Ruled out.Reinforces the conclusion.
B- Ruled out.Reinforces the conclusion. (No dental problem-> No cardio problem)
C- Ruled out.Reinforces the conclusion.
D- Ruled out.Reinforces the conclusion. (Denatl problem-> intake of processed food.Processed food is in a way irrelevant- we cannot conclude anything as per the given question - and even if we say that processed food causes cardio problems, it can be ruled out as it reinforces the conclusion.)
E - Correct. No cardio problem-> may or may not have dental problem. This means that even if someone has a dental problem, they may not have a cardio problem.
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17 Jul 2012, 03:07
I think the answer should be D.

B. People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet. - People who brush and floss their teeth regularly also exercise and eat healthy diet. But it doesn't mean that they don't suffer from periodontal disease.
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17 Jul 2012, 14:21
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A. Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.
B. People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.
C. Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.
D. People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.
E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

---

premise : fequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients

conclusion : any dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

we can weaken this argument by following ways.

a. challenging the information
b. showing that cause occurs but effect does not occur
c. showing that effect occurs but cause does not occur...
--------
A. Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate. (Not Related to conclusion).. Therefore putting a BLANK
B. People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet. (Not Related to conclusion).. Therefore putting a BLANK
C. Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries. W This can be a weakener as it says that arteries could be impacted to another cause which is infected gums
D. People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream. now this answer is half correct and half wrong.. it does not mention the periodontal disease but it does not conclude the non existence of heart disease.
E. Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant. to me this is strengthening the argument. (S)

Hence my answer would be "C"
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17 Jul 2012, 19:30
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I would go with E because it clearly says if there is a dental disease it leads to heart disease. All other options prove that dental does leads to heart disease.

Its only E that says that its not necessary that they are related
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19 Jul 2012, 06:09
To me it seems E and I think it's the strongest option
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19 Jul 2012, 06:40
B looks good.

This indicates that there is no relation between coronary artery disease and gum disease.

E:

It restates the evidence from the prompt: periodontal disease and cardiovascular problems often occur in the same patients. There's no indication here which would be cause and which would be effect.
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2012, 03:37
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Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart disease occur in the same patients, many dentists believe that periodontal disease is a cause of a variety of cardiovascular problems, including Coronary Artery Disease.

Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the claim that periodontal disease is a cause of Coronary Artery disease?

A) Bacteria present in infected gums can become mobile and enter the bloodstream, causing arterial plaque to accumulate.

B) People who brush and floss their teeth regularly are also more likely to exercise and eat a healthy diet.

C) Infected gums are more prone to bleeding, which allows bacteria to escape the mouth and irritate arteries.

D) People who experience loss of teeth due to periodontal disease usually cut back on many foods that are harder to chew, such as lean meats and vegetables, and increase their consumption of processed foods like pudding and ice cream.

E) Patients with no history of heart disease are much less likely to have periodontal disease than patients who have had a cardiac transplant.

This ques seems very simple... But i doubt OA

Source: Grockit
Citing the frequency with which gum disease and heart   [#permalink] 28 Nov 2012, 03:37

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