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Cognitive psychologists focused on learning and retention have found

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Cognitive psychologists focused on learning and retention have found  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2015, 06:44
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  35% (medium)

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68% (01:14) correct 32% (01:19) wrong based on 236 sessions

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Cognitive psychologists focused on learning and retention have found students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who review in such a way that the material seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, and they tend to overlook the more holistic aspects of the material.


A) students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who review in such a way that it seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, and they tend to

B) that students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who, in reviewing material so that it seems somewhat fresh rather than over-rehearsed, tending to

C) that students who constantly review material actually retain less information than do those who review in such a way that the material seems somewhat fresh rather than over-rehearsed, and that this first group tends to

D) constant review of material results in less retention than do those individuals who, in reviewing in such a way that the material seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, tend to

E) that students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who review material so that it seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, and that such individuals tend to

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Re: Cognitive psychologists focused on learning and retention have found  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2015, 09:01
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A) students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who review in such a way that it seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, and they tend to ---- found that is essential for this type of clause. Or we must use the infinitive as have found students to x where x is the verb


B) that students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who, in reviewing material so that it seems somewhat fresh rather than over-rehearsed, tending to --- This is a fragment

C) that students who constantly review material actually retain less information than do those who review in such a way that the material seems somewhat fresh rather than over-rehearsed, and that this first group tends to --- The correct answer; Comparison is perfect and parallel ; use of rather than is idiomatic.

D) constant review of material results in less retention than do those individuals who, in reviewing in such a way that the material seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, tend to --- wrong comparison; review compared with people

E) that students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who review material so that it seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, and that such individuals tend to --- instead of is not idiomatic

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Re: Cognitive psychologists focused on learning and retention have found  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2015, 05:34
Harley1980 wrote:
Cognitive psychologists focused on learning and retention have found students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who review in such a way that the material seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, and they tend to overlook the more holistic aspects of the material.

A) students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who review in such a way that it seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, and they tend to
B) that students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who, in reviewing material so that it seems somewhat fresh rather than over-rehearsed, tending to
C) that students who constantly review material actually retain less information than do those who review in such a way that the material seems somewhat fresh rather than over-rehearsed, and that this first group tends to
D) constant review of material results in less retention than do those individuals who, in reviewing in such a way that the material seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, tend to
E) that students who constantly review material actually retain less information than those who review material so that it seems somewhat fresh instead of over-rehearsed, and that such individuals tend to



+1 for C. Quick Qs-B/w C and E, if it boiled down to the use of 'than those' and than do those which would be correct?
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Re: Cognitive psychologists focused on learning and retention have found  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2015, 05:42
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E will be plain wrong comparing what students retain with the other type of students. That is why a verb' do' is required to match the verb 'retain'
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Re: Cognitive psychologists focused on learning and retention have found  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jan 2018, 00:19
daagh wrote:
E will be plain wrong comparing what students retain with the other type of students. That is why a verb' do' is required to match the verb 'retain'


i thought "do" is elapsed comparison.
I think "these individuals" are quite ambiguous.
I am stuck with C and E but I picked b/c of "rather than" vs "instead of"
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Re: Cognitive psychologists focused on learning and retention have found  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2018, 06:05

Official Explanation


Remember that for a comparison to be logically sound on the GMAT, it must compare like-to-like. We can compare students to students, or study habits to study habits, but comparing students to study habits is illogical and incorrect.

Choice (A): this choice is illogical at a few levels. First of all, it has “student … unlike when student”—comparing students to an event, a “when” clause. Also, the first clause suggest that all students “constantly review,” but then the second clause starts talking about “when students” do something else—are these the same students? Do all students do one thing, then some or all do the other? The target groups are not clear at all. Finally, the antecedent of the pronoun “they” at the end is entirely muddled. This choice is incorrect.

Choice (B): “the constant review … compared with students”—an illogical comparison. This choice is incorrect.*

Choice (C): this choice correctly identifies the two groups with “who” clauses, and correctly creates the contrast with the demonstrative pronoun “those.” Finally, it correctly identifies the group in the last clause.

Choice (D): the placement of the prepositional phrase “by constantly reviewing” is unclear: who is doing this? The students or the cognitive psychologists? The structure “in comparison to them who” is stilted and awkward. The antecedent of the final “they” is unclear. This choice is incorrect.

Choice (E): The repetition of the pronoun in “review it so that it seems …” is awkward, verging on redundant. Identifying the first group as “these constantly reviewing students” is naïve and unsophisticated: this has no place in the formal language of the GMAT. This choice is incorrect.

The only possible answer is (C).

*NOTE: Choice (B) also contains a split infinitive: “to actually retain.” A “split infinitive” occurs when any word comes between the “to” and the verb of an infinitive (e.g. to boldly go where no man has gone before). Grammatical conservatives (including Mike McGarry) object to split infinitives in all cases. Folks who are grammatically more liberal (such as Chris Lele) think they’re perfectly permissible under certain conditions. The GMAT takes no position on these: in general, the GMAT likes to avoid controversy, so typically split infinitives only appear in SC answer choices that are wrong for other clear reasons. As split infinitives are gaining wide support in many well-educated circles, it’s best not to draw any conclusion about them on the GMAT. In your own writing, you get to be as sophisticated or casual as you like.
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Re: Cognitive psychologists focused on learning and retention have found &nbs [#permalink] 15 Sep 2018, 06:05
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