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Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the

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New post 18 Mar 2015, 03:21
Difficult question. In order to correctly answer this question, I think one needs to know about 'perfect infinitive'.

I would like to add that 'paths' is also wrong here. Because it means every neanderthal had his or her own path:)
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New post 23 Mar 2015, 23:12
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Ergenekon wrote:
Difficult question. In order to correctly answer this question, I think one needs to know about 'perfect infinitive'.

Strictly speaking, even without knowing perfect infinitives, the correct answer can be arrived at, through process of elimination.

equipped to is the right idiom and so, A and E are out. C and D use paths, but since the sentence refers to the Neanderthals collectively as a species, the use of paths is incorrect.

Nevertheless, knowledge of perfect infinitives can come in handy on GMAT, because they can indeed be tested and are very flexible: They can act either as present perfect, past perfect or (in some rare cases) as simple past, and always indicate that the action in the perfect infinitive happened before the action of the main verb of the clause.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses perfect infinitive, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section. In fact, it’s interesting that our book actually refers to this very official question in the section on perfect infinitives.
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2015, 19:57
If in C we replace paths with path, will that be the correct sentence?
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New post 25 Mar 2015, 20:03
1
Naina1 wrote:
If in C we replace paths with path, will that be the correct sentence?



hi Naina1,


what is this question testing....
1) appear as vs appear to...
appear as someone/something eg.. moon appears as a ball from earth...
appear to be... as in this case, appear to have been equipped is correct..

2) appear vs appeared..
as we are talking of future in past ('could' shows future of a past event ).... and also we are talking in present about a past incident.. appear wins over appeared..
3) a small point .. in most cases you will find infinitive form equipped to face better than equipped for facing..

lets see choice C if paths is changed to path..
(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,

as you can see appear as is not appropriate here .. appear to is better used here..
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Mar 2015, 00:04
Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
usage of "appear as" shows that they still appear hence wrong + for facing doesn't conveys the intended meaning

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
Correct

(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
same as A + paths must be path

(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
Usage of "appeared as" showed in past hence changes the intended meaning + paths must be path

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
Same as D

Hence B
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New post 10 May 2015, 12:56
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1
Quote:
this isn't a present perfect construction, because it's actually an infinitive.
i.e., it's not "they have been equipped"; it's "they appear TO HAVE been equipped".

in any case, you should probably just memorize this construction as a one-off idiomatic structure. if you say "they seemed/appeared to...", then, no matter how remote the event is (in time), you use this construction.

for instance:
it seems that the students cheated on the exam
(normal past tense in this construction)
but...
the students seem to have cheated on the exam
(not here)

i don't really have a good explanation for this, other than "i'm a writer with a firm command of formal english, and i know that it is so" and "you should just think of it as an idiom". sorry i can't do better than that.

in any case, though, you DO have to use an infinitive after "appear" or "seem" in this sort of construction. and if you think about it, this is as past-tense as an infinitive can get. so that's why you have to use it.

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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2015, 07:47
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1
Before Jumping to Question let's talk about usage of As
used to
1. Compare - " Ganguly is as good as Sachin (is)" , here as needs clause "Sachin is"
2. Simultaneous Action - "I am talking as I am writing " Here as needs clause "I am writing"
3. Role - "I am working as Tester" - Here as need noun.

above are roles played by As, if As is not playing any of the above role in your sentence then it is wrong (to almost in every occurrence ")

Meaning Analysis :
the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle, but reality is different. (Shortcut meaning - Excuse me for this)

POE
"As" in option A,c and D does not play any standard role as mentioned above. More over, as is not followed by full clause. Hence option A,C and D can be marked incorrect on this ground.

In option B and Option E, only difference is
"equipped to face" Vs "equipped for facing" Here Equipped for is not correct, we always say "I am equipped to solve this efficiently" we never say "I am equipped for doing x work"
Moreover Infinitve is used to show the purpose instead of preposition (For).

"Neanderthals appear as equipped" (for some purpose )"to face any obstacle.

Hence option B is correct
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New post 02 Apr 2017, 07:49
Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, - usage of as is incorrect - As is used for comparison , to denote simultaneous action , role and reason . Usage of "for facing" is also incorrect here as it fails to present the intent of being equipped.
(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path, - Correct
(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths, - usage of as is incorrect ;The use of paths is incorrect since the sentence refers to the Neanderthals collectively as a species
(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths, - usage of as is incorrect ; Simple present is needed as the sentence presents some general facts about Neanderthals.
(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, - Usage of "for facing" is also incorrect here as it fails to present the intent of being equipped. Simple present is needed as the sentence presents some general facts about Neanderthals.

Answer B
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New post 26 May 2017, 22:48
The option D isn't correctly typed in the question.
I think it should have "paths" in the end.
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New post 27 May 2017, 03:34
nainy05 wrote:
The option D isn't correctly typed in the question.
I think it should have "paths" in the end.


In my opinion, "path" is OK. It is not meant that each Neanderthal had a different path. As a group they had a path, though "paths" would also be alright.
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New post 11 Sep 2017, 14:29
Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence,the neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,but their relatively sudden disappearnce during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led o their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path
(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
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New post 11 Sep 2017, 20:08
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Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path
- "as equipped for facing" = INCORRECT. should be "appeared TO face"

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
- correct as is

(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
- "paths" should be "path"

(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
- "appeared" should be "appear" to maintain //ism with verb outside of underline "indicates"

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
- same as "A" ("for facing" error). same as "D" ("appeared" error)

tricky problem. key takeaways:
> "appeared FOR facing" = incorrect structure; "appeared TO face" = ideal structure
> LOOK OUTSIDE OF SENTENCE TO GAUGE VERB TENSE (i.e. spot "indicates" -- means sentence is PRESENT TENSE...therefore, "appeared" = INCORRECT)


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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2017, 02:51
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Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence,the neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,but their relatively sudden disappearnce during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led o their extinction.

NOTE : This question gives us a BIG TAKEAWAY, never miss the non-underlined part. Read the complete sentence. Because here from the non-underlined part we come to know about the TENSE of the sentence, which helps in choosing between appear VS appeared!

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path
(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,
(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

ANALYSING THE ERRORS IN THE ORIGINAL SENTENCE :

1. equipped to VERB VS equipped for VERBING
Equipped To VERB -- IDIOMATIC USAGE
Equipped For VERBING -- NON IDIOMATIC USAGE

2. appear as equipped VS appeared as equipped VS appear to have been equipped
Appear as equipped -- it implies as if neanderthals right now appear as equipped. However, as per the intended meaning of the sentence neanderthals are extinct now. INCORRECT
Appear to have been equipped -- when we say that Neanderthals appear to have been equipped, we do not mean that neanderthals are equipped right now. They were equipped sometime in the past. However, this fact is what appears to us now.
Appeared as equipped -- The use of simple present ‘indicates’ in the second independent clause indicates that the sentence is talking about the present. Therefore, we need simple present “appear” as the verb, instead of “appeared”. Logically also, the sentence seems to say that it ‘appears’ that Neanderthals were equipped. It doesn’t seem to say that it so appeared in the past but not now.

3. PATH vs PATHS
As we are talking of a single obstacle, so we must be talking of a single path and not multiple paths. Therefore, usage of "path" is logical.

After POE, only choice B remains.
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New post 24 Dec 2017, 12:43
Why is "appear to have been equipped" in Option C better than "appeared to have been equipped" in Option D?

It is talking about past; why is "appeared" incorrect?

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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2017, 06:33
avijit8888 wrote:
Why is "appear to have been equipped" in Option C better than "appeared to have been equipped" in Option D?

It is talking about past; why is "appeared" incorrect?

Thanks
Avijit



The split "appear" / "appeared" is only to confuse the candidates - both are correct. Option D is wrong because of use of the wrong idiom " appear as".

The thought process for solving this problem may go as follows:
Split 1: "appear / "appeared": both make sense - cannot eliminate any option.
Split 2: "appear as" / "appear to be": "appear as" wrong - means to come in sight as something (e.g., He appeared as a joker in the circus.) Eliminate A,C and D.
Split 3: "to face" / "for facing": "for facing" wrong - purpose requires use of infinitive "to face" - eliminate E.
Correct Option B.
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New post 01 Feb 2018, 03:28
I do not 100% understand why the OA of this question is B.

As I thought this question is stating about neanderthals (a kind of human from the past) so the tense should be past simple -> I omit A, B, and C.

We have the idiom "appear to V" and it is "to V"; therefore, why can't we state "appear to be equipped" but "appear to have been equipped" like the OA?

Thank you so much for your precious response, I really appreciate that!
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Mar 2018, 20:50
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avijit8888 wrote:
Why is "appear to have been equipped" in Option C better than "appeared to have been equipped" in Option D?

It is talking about past; why is "appeared" incorrect?

Thanks
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simdang wrote:
I do not 100% understand why the OA of this question is B.

As I thought this question is stating about neanderthals (a kind of human from the past) so the tense should be past simple -> I omit A, B, and C.

We have the idiom "appear to V" and it is "to V"; therefore, why can't we state "appear to be equipped" but "appear to have been equipped" like the OA?

Thank you so much for your precious response, I really appreciate that!



Ron's answer -

by default, "appear" is in the present tense, since we're talking about the way these things appear to present-day observers.

if there were a context that would place "appear" in the past, then you could use the past tense. for instance: to nineteenth-century observers, they appeared to have been equipped...
but, absent such a context, you should go with the present, for simplicity (the default assumption is that this "appears" to be the case to present observers).

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

in this case, you've also got parallelism between "appear" and "indicates", two descriptions that both describe observations made in the present.
since "indicates" is not underlined, that determines the tense context. so your other observation, which is made at the same time, should be parallel to it.


-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

"to have VERBed" is a type of infinitive that refers to actions in a timeframe previous to the timeframe of the sentence itself. this is actually the only kind of infinitive that can do this, so it will take the same form regardless of the tense of the main clause.

so, if you write
"the students seem to have cheated"
then
* the sentence itself is in the present ("seem"). so, the sentence is talking about the way things appear to a present observer.
* according to that present observer, it seems to be the case that the students cheated at some point in the past.


if you write
"the students seemed to have cheated"
then
* the sentence itself is in the past ("seemed"). so, the sentence is talking about the way things appeared to a past observer.
* according to that past observer, it seems to be the case that the students cheated at some point earlier in the past.

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
Mitch's answer

In English, we have two infinitive tenses: the present infinitive (TO + VERB) and the perfect infinitive (TO + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE).

The present infinitive expresses CONTEMPORANEOUS action (an action happening AT THE SAME TIME as the main action):
John IS proud TO BE president.
Here, John IS proud (in the present) TO BE president (also in the present).

The perfect infinitive expresses PRIOR action (an action that happened PRIOR to the main action):
John IS proud TO HAVE BEEN president.
Here, John IS proud (in the present) TO HAVE BEEN president (in the past).

One definition of to appear is to seem.
The intention of the SC above is to discuss WHAT SEEMS TO BE TRUE about the Neanderthals.
The Neanderthals appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle..
Here, the Neanderthals APPEAR (in other words, they SEEM -- right now, in the present) TO HAVE BEEN EQUIPPED (in the past).
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Re: Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2018, 23:03
tejal777 wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 755
Page: 700

Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, (correct idiom is as...as), second as missing

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path, to face better than for facing in E + later in sentence we have indicates ; appeared and indicates is not same tense

(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths, (correct idiom is as...as), second as missing

(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path, (correct idiom is as...as), second as missing

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,
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New post 11 Jul 2018, 20:19
Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction.

(A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths,

(D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

(E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

Hello @e-gmat / daagh -

Could you please explain the usage of have been in choice B. -
I understand that "appear" needs to be preferred over "appeared" because the act of appearing did not happen in the past.
Also, the verb equipped is an adverb here (modifying the verb appear). So we need to convey the meaning in a way so that it is clear that the act of appearing is of the present
but we are eventually talking about past. In short , we need to bring in a flavor of past tense here.
so in choice B - we are doing this with present perfect (in passive voice) - My question is why present perfect . Shouldn't we be using past tense here. I believe,
we can use present perfect on below conditions -
1> event over in recent past but has effect till now
2> there is a continuity in event and it is still continuing,
3> event in past but we don't have any timeline.

Now i know - we can't use (appear as "verb form") . Correct usage is (appear as noun) / (appear to be verb). With "appear to be ..." - i am not sure how can we use a past tense. So B is the best choice but i am not able to find a grammatical reasoning for this. Please help.
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