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Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding princip

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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding princip [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2017, 21:40
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Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend against future economic crises.

A. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend against future economic crises.

CORRECT: This answer choice conveys the intended meaning in a clear and idiomatically correct fashion. One may argue that pronoun ‘they’ is ambiguous, but remember that logic is the ultimate factor in pronoun reference issues: of the two eligible plural nouns [(1) ‘plural compound noun – companies, investors and governments’ and (2) ‘guiding principles’], only the (1) makes sense, after all how can guiding principles defend against future economic crises? Furthermore, ‘IF’ is a subordinate conjunction and subject of the subordinate clause can logically refer to the subject of the main clause


B. Companies, investors, along with governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if it is to defend against future economic crises.

Construction/Meaning: construction ‘Companies, investors, along with governments’ has two issues:
1. Construction: conjunctions such as ‘along with/ together with/ in addition to/ etc.’ are normally used to add descriptive/non-essential information and are normally separated by commas from the rest of the sentence: Mike, along with John, rides a bicycle to school
2. Meaning: the author intends to put an equal emphasis on [(1) Companies, (2) investors, and (3) governments] to have to relearn the guiding principles of value creation; whereas, this answer choice attempts to put main emphasis on [(1) Companies, (2) investors] and to add [(3) governments] as extra/non-essential information;
Switching conjunction ‘along with’ to conjunction ‘and’ would solve both issues
Pronoun: Conjunction ‘and’ in a list of items constitutes a plural quantity; therefore, the subject is the plural compound noun: ‘companies, investors, and governments’, hence singular pronoun ‘it’ and the singular verb ‘is’ do not agree in number with the plural compound noun: ‘companies, investors, and governments’;


C. Companies, as well as investors and governments, must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if they are to defend from future economic crises.

Meaning: the author intends to put an equal emphasis on [(1) Companies, (2) investors, and (3) governments] to have to relearn the guiding principles of value creation; whereas, this answer choice attempts to put main emphasis on [(1) Companies], and to add [(2) investors and (3) governments] as extra/non-essential information;
Unidiomatic: In the given context, construction ‘defend from’ is unidiomatic; the idiomatically correct expression would be ‘defend against’;


D. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if these are to defend from future economic crises.

Pronoun: This answer choice incorrectly uses indicative pronoun ‘these’ to refer to the plural compound noun: ‘companies, investors, and governments’;
o It's always wrong to use ‘these’ as a PRONOUN in formal English.
o Anything in which ‘these’ is used as a NOUN is incorrect: if you see ‘these are...’, ‘these show that’, etc. then, in general, it's wrong;
o The only acceptable use of ‘these’ in formal written English is as an ADJECTIVE + the noun: these facts, these rumors, etc.;
Unidiomatic: In the given context, construction ‘defend from’ is unidiomatic; the idiomatically correct expression would be ‘defend against’;


E. Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles of value creation if future economic crises are to be defended.

Meaning: passive construction ‘economic crises are to be defended’ changes the intended meaning of the sentence, nonsensically implying that ‘the companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding principles in order TO DEFEND ECONOMIC CRISES’; obviously, ‘Companies, investors, and governments want to defend THEMSELVES against future economic crises, not the other way around’
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Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding princip [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2017, 07:34
mvictor wrote:
would love to see the OE & OA.

I picked E because in A the pronoun "they" is ambiguous.
E sounds better, but this choice doesn't show any correlation between relearning and defending against economic crises.
who is going to defend?


If a pronoun that is the subject of a clause has two possible antecedents, one of which is the subject of another clause within the sentence, the pronoun would, by virtue of parallelism, unambiguously refer to the subject antecedent. Therefore "they" clearly refers to "Companies, investors, and governments" (both are subjects of their respective clauses) - such a construction is not considered ambiguous in GMAT.

OA is A - topics merged.
Re: Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding princip   [#permalink] 23 Apr 2017, 07:34

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Companies, investors, and governments must relearn the guiding princip

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