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# Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western

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Intern
Joined: 06 May 2009
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Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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Updated on: 13 Jul 2017, 00:09
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5% (low)

Question Stats:

90% (00:35) correct 10% (00:41) wrong based on 455 sessions

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Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms gradually caused farmers in Pennsylvania to turn to livestock raising, but before that it was predominantly grain-producing.

A. Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms gradually caused farmers in Pennsylvania to turn to livestock raising, but before that it was predominantly grain-producing.
B. Once predominantly a grain-producing state, competition in the mid-nineteenth century from large western farms gradually was causing Pennsylvania’s farmers to turn to livestock raising.
C. Pennsylvania’s farmers were gradually caused to turn to livestock raising by competition from large western farms in the mid-nineteenth century, but before that it was predominantly a grain-producing state.
D. It was once predominantly grain-producing, but competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms was gradually causing Pennsylvania’s farmers to turn to livestock raising.
E. Pennsylvania was once a predominantly grain-producing state, but competition in the mid-nineteenth century from large western farms gradually caused the state’s farmers to turn to livestock raising.

Originally posted by aquabio on 08 May 2009, 07:40.
Last edited by Vyshak on 13 Jul 2017, 00:09, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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08 May 2009, 08:02
2
IMO E

Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms gradually caused farmers in Pennsylvania to turn to livestock raising, but before that it was predominantly grain-producing.

A. Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms gradually caused farmers in Pennsylvania to turn to livestock raising, but before that it was predominantly grain-producing --> it is not clearly modifies for which Noun
B. Once predominantly a grain-producing state, competition in the mid-nineteenth century from large western farms gradually was causing Pennsylvania’s farmers to turn to livestock raising -->dangling: competition cannot once be a grain-producing state
C. Pennsylvania’s farmers were gradually caused to turn to livestock raising by competition from large western farms in the mid-nineteenth century, but before that it was predominantly a grain-producing state -->same error as (A)
D. It was once predominantly grain-producing, but competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms was gradually causing Pennsylvania’s farmers to turn to livestock raising -->it here wrongly modifies for competition, because competition can't be a grain-producing
E. Pennsylvania was once a predominantly grain-producing state, but competition in the mid-nineteenth century from large western farms gradually caused the state’s farmers to turn to livestock raising -->best. precise meaning and structure
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2009, 13:58
E

The runner up would be A, but "it" has no clear referrant.
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2009, 17:46
mendelay wrote:
The runner up would be A, but "it" has no clear referrant.
E

The runner up would be A, but "it" has no clear referrant.

Well tried.....but in GMAT,there is no runner up.
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2009, 14:22
E is the only correct. I'll go for E.
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2009, 03:28
I am stuck between A and E... please explain how A is wrong.
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2012, 12:55
Clearly E. All others are wrong because of lack of referents to the pronoun or because of faulty parallelism.
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2012, 02:35
+1 for E, all others have modifier misplaced problem.
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2015, 21:35
this question test: proun + meaning.

Pronoun "it" does not have any logical ancestors in choice A, C, and D. that leave choice B and E
the use of "Once predominantly a grain-producing state" to modify "cmpetition in neighteen centuries" is nonsense. Hence, choice B is out
Leave choice E.

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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2015, 12:48
1
Split 1:- Improper modification
Eliminate B (Once .... state modifies competition)
Eliminate D

Split 2:- Incomplete clause
Eliminate A ( predominantly grain-producing --> should include state to complete the clause)

Split 3:- Wrong antecedent
Eliminate C. While the sentence talk about Pennsylvania's farmer the contrast clause uses it instead of them. There is one more error that the contrast clause (but ....) is modifying Pennsylvania as it specifies state in the end while we are talking about Pennsylvania's farmer.

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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2016, 00:33
I'm confused as to why A is wrong? Why can't the pronoun "it" refer to Pennsylvania?
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2016, 10:45
1
geek_mnnit wrote:
I'm confused as to why A is wrong? Why can't the pronoun "it" refer to Pennsylvania?

It can refer to either Competition or Pennsylvania.

Hence, pronoun ambiguity error.
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2017, 03:51
Hi Experts,

Could you please provides your comments for option A? one can quickly eliminate option B,C and D. Now I want to know apart from pronoun ambiguity what is the issue with option A?

option E can we say meaning is slightly different. xxxxx was once a predominantly grain producing state. so its mean this is over not applicable in current time.

Thanks
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2017, 04:43
1
1
PathFinder007 wrote:
Hi Experts,

Could you please provides your comments for option A? one can quickly eliminate option B,C and D. Now I want to know apart from pronoun ambiguity what is the issue with option A?

option E can we say meaning is slightly different. xxxxx was once a predominantly grain producing state. so its mean this is over not applicable in current time.

Thanks

Two major problems with A:

1. "That" is a demonstrative adjective and hence cannot stand by its own. There has to be a noun after "that" (e.g before that practice).

2. "It" should have been "they" to refer to the "farmers".

The meaning in E is alright. Even in the original sentence, the tense used is simple past, indicating that the state is no longer predominantly grain-producing.

*Note: "that" may also be used as a relative pronoun, but that discussion is out of scope for this question
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2017, 13:35
Option E

A. Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms gradually caused farmers in Pennsylvania to turn to livestock raising, but before that it was predominantly grain-producing. (Pronoun "it" does not clearly refers to noun - can be "farmers" or "Pennsylvania" )
B. Once predominantly a grain-producing state, competition in the mid-nineteenth century from large western farms gradually was causing Pennsylvania’s farmers to turn to livestock raising. ( Modifier "Once predominantly a grain-producing state" modifies competition)
C. Pennsylvania’s farmers were gradually caused to turn to livestock raising by competition from large western farms in the mid-nineteenth century, but before that it was predominantly a grain-producing state. (Pronoun " it" does not relevant noun available in sentence)
D. It was once predominantly grain-producing, but competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms was gradually causing Pennsylvania’s farmers to turn to livestock raising. (Modifier "It was once predominantly grain-producing" modifies noun competition)
E. Pennsylvania was once a predominantly grain-producing state, but competition in the mid-nineteenth century from large western farms gradually caused the state’s farmers to turn to livestock raising. Correct
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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2017, 19:52
Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms gradually caused farmers in Pennsylvania to turn to livestock raising, but before that it was predominantly grain-producing.

A. Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms gradually caused farmers in Pennsylvania to turn to livestock raising, but before that it was predominantly grain-producing. - Pronoun it antecedent issue ; Competition "by" seems awkward
B. Once predominantly a grain-producing state, competition in the mid-nineteenth century from large western farms gradually was causing Pennsylvania’s farmers to turn to livestock raising. - Modifier issue - competition was not a grain-producing state
C. Pennsylvania’s farmers were gradually caused to turn to livestock raising by competition from large western farms in the mid-nineteenth century, but before that it was predominantly a grain-producing state. - Pronoun it antecedent issue - Pennsylvania is an adjective here
D. It was once predominantly grain-producing, but competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western farms was gradually causing Pennsylvania’s farmers to turn to livestock raising. - Pronoun it antecedent issue
E. Pennsylvania was once a predominantly grain-producing state, but competition in the mid-nineteenth century from large western farms gradually caused the state’s farmers to turn to livestock raising. - Correct

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Re: Competition in the mid-nineteenth century by large western   [#permalink] 21 Nov 2017, 19:52
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