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# Concerns about public health led to the construction between

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28 Aug 2007, 04:51
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Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston

(A) Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve
(B) Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve
(C) Concerns about public health have led between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving
(D) There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems serving
(E) There were concerns leading between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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28 Aug 2007, 05:02
A is fine.

B and C use the perfect inappropriately.

D is ambiguous - public health leads to construction?

E is the wrong tense again. The sewer systems were built during a specific time period so it has to be "led" not "leading" or "have led"

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09 Oct 2008, 17:43
B

Usage of 'have'(Present Perfect) looks okay.
Present Perfect: state or action that occurred in the past and may continue to the present.

Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve

In this case, 'have' is used to limit the past action to a certain period and I think that is okay.

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14 Apr 2009, 23:40
What is the OA?

tenaman10 wrote:
Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston.
A. Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve
i think this one - the original - is correct.
B. Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve
with this one, the verb tense "have led" doesn't work, since the time period 1876-1904 already happened in the past.
C. Concerns about public health have led between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving
same verb tense issue as B.
D. There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems serving
saying "there were concerns... leading to the construction..." sounds wrong to me... sorry i can't explain that one more fully.
E. There were concerns leading between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving

same problem as D., plus saying "for serving" sounds odd... again. sorry i can't explain that one better.

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15 Apr 2009, 08:38
I feel between A and B.. I will choose A.

B is better constructed but have is not required.

BTW what is the source?

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15 Apr 2009, 21:19
My choice is A

Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston.
A. Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve --> best used of tense, simple structure and correct meaning
B. Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve --> wrong verb tense of "have led" which means that the concerns lasted to the present time whereas it actually occurred in the past
C. Concerns about public health have led between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving --> same error. Also, have led between 1876 and 1904 is ungrammatical
D. There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems serving --> There were makes the whole sentence more complicated than (A) does
E. There were concerns leading between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving --> this answer emphasizes that the concerns, not the construction, was between 1876 and 1904, hence distorting the original meaning

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06 Oct 2009, 15:21
marshpa wrote:
IMO B. have led is okay for me, reason, concerns have led, concerns did not drive the constructions overnight, but rather period of long time.
I guess key to unlock this sentence was word placement..I found that construction must be placed near to sewers(thats the case of B).

I don't think the tense is determined by the amount of time, but rather by whether or not the first action was completed before the second one. Am I right?

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29 Dec 2009, 06:11
A. Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve ------------CORRECT

B. Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve- Incorrect tense (have led)

C. Concerns about public health have led between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving -same problem as B

D. There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems serving (distorts meaning - public health leading to construction?)

E. There were concerns leading between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving - (same problem as D)

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05 Mar 2010, 15:10
This is verb tense sentence correction problem. I made the mistake of choosing B, but should be A. Construction ended (simply occurred in past) between "1876 and 1904", so only need simple past form of verb ("led"). I think the syntax in A is a bit weird, but still correct.

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05 Mar 2010, 18:50
lackofwittyname wrote:
This is verb tense sentence correction problem. I made the mistake of choosing B, but should be A. Construction ended (simply occurred in past) between "1876 and 1904", so only need simple past form of verb ("led"). I think the syntax in A is a bit weird, but still correct.

You are right, I also chose B but was not sure about "have led" rather I preferred the order of the sentence over A and got it wrong.
Actually, I didn't follow the advice (by Ron Purewal on mgmat forums) and got it wrong. According to Ron the rule for SC is always to follow this pattern
1. Correctness (even if it looks weird)
2. Clarity ( When choosing between 2 grammatically correct answers go for clear one )

I just preferred clarity and didn't indulge into correctness as it is verb-tense issue.
Gotta be careful next time hehe.
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13 Dec 2010, 00:31
This is a GMAT Prep question and the OA is A.

"have led" = Present perfect is incorrect in B, the action or its effect are NOT continuing to the present moment. Simple past correctly conveys the meaning (A).

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28 Jan 2011, 07:35
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daryayurlova wrote:
Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston
(a)
(b) Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve
(c) Concerns about public health have led between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving
(d) There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 18776 and 1903 of three separate sewer systems serving
(e) There were concerns leading between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving

Yes A is correct because of misplaced modifiers and verb tense reasons.
D and E are out. D b/c this sentence tells you that the occurrence (leading) happened in the past (b/n 1876 and 1903) so leading should be led instead (Same reason for eliminating E as well).
E can also be eliminated b/c a clearer sentence can be created when "leading" is placed closer to the phrase "to the construction of three separate sewer systems". Not to say that the verb tense leading is correct, by the way.
C is out b/c have led is not the correct verb tense that should be used here. You are trying to convey that that action happened and ended in the past, no that it continues to the present. SO you must use led. For that same reason you can eliminate B.

HTH
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28 Jan 2011, 07:52
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mariyea wrote:
D and E are out. D b/c this sentence tells you that the occurrence (leading) happened in the past (b/n 1876 and 1903) so leading should be led instead (Same reason for eliminating E as well).
HTH

How would you use led with the sentence structure as in D ?... Putting which after health? But then modifier issue would arise... In fact, i went for D beacuse i thought that leading is used here as a participle, which modifies concerns about public health ... But seems i can't do that when i am restrained by time frame in the past ..... hmmm ...

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28 Jan 2011, 07:59
daryayurlova wrote:
mariyea wrote:
D and E are out. D b/c this sentence tells you that the occurrence (leading) happened in the past (b/n 1876 and 1903) so leading should be led instead (Same reason for eliminating E as well).
HTH

How would you use led with the sentence structure as in D ?... Putting which after health? But then modifier issue would arise... In fact, i went for D beacuse i thought that leading is used here as a participle, which modifies concerns about public health ... But seems i can't do that when i am restrained by time frame in the past ..... hmmm ...

You know I didn't notice that ... but (IMHO) I don' think that it was meant to be used as a participle.
But there is another reason why D is wrong, "There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 18776 and 1903 of three separate sewer systems serving" serving is used here to express purpose which is not supposed to be the case. To serve is the proper way that you can express that idea.
Nice going with pointing out the participle though.
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30 Jan 2011, 00:18
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D is out because it changes the meaning.

Original: concerns led to the construction
D: there were some concerns leading to the construction

concerns about public health LED to the construction .. not some of these concerns.

The following examples will make the point clearer.
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15 Jan 2012, 23:40
Choose B
but after reading all the reviews , i am inclined toward the OA, which is A.
because the concerns were in past and once the construction was over, they lost the relevance...since concerns are neither ongoing nor reflected, simple past LED is fine and present perfect is not required.
thanx .
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06 Dec 2014, 08:15
A Wins! Mistakes in each statement highlighted below!

quote="tenaman10"]Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston.

A. Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve

B. Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve

C. Concerns about public health have led between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving

D. There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems serving

E. There were concerns leading between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving[/quote]
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18 Aug 2015, 21:37
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Hi,

can anyone explain why option B is wrong?

In the option B, have led is the problematic part.
We need to simply use led as we are talking about a past event.

Have led means that the concerns lasted till the present times. And this is not the case.
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19 Aug 2015, 01:56
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I feel the answer above are misleading. Sorry to say but, even the GMAT prep company representative has given a very vague answer. I will break down the grammatical reason between answer choice A and B.

Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston
(a)Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve
To begin led is VERB, which is in PAST PERFECT form in the sentence. PAST PERFECT can only be used to talk about the past with a time line that is completed. For instance,
Where were yesterday?
I went to library yesterday.

What did you do on Monday?
I played rugby last Monday.

What did you had for breakfast?
I drank milk in the morning.
Did you notice that I was talking about the past with a specific time? This is exactly where PAST PERFECT form of verbs is used.

so, the option A correct states the specific time associated with the when did construction happen. As many have belabored the point, the first thing on GMAT SC is to look for grammatical correct option. If you follow that you will notice that other options have grammatical problems. I know this modifier seem misplaced, but it grammatical not wrong, and doesn't obscures the meaning of the sentence.
Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve

(b) Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve
Here have led is in the form of PRESENT PERFECT. Remember, PRESENT PERFECT is also used to denote a past action that is competed, however, it has no specific time associated with it. For instance,
Where all have been to?
I have been to japan, Korea and Netherlands.

Did you see there was specific time mentioned here? You can't say "I have gone to japan, Korea and Netherlands last year" This is wrong. If you want to add time to sentence you have to say "I went to Japan and Korea last year."
This is why this option is wrong.

Again, both
led
have led
denote a past action but, "led" NEEDS a specific time and "have led" can't be used with a specific time.

I hope this helps you,
Thanks,
Kay

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30 Jan 2016, 07:00
tenaman10 wrote:
Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve metropolitan Boston.
A. Concerns about public health led to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems to serve
B. Concerns about public health have led to the construction of three separate sewer systems between 1876 and 1904 to serve
C. Concerns about public health have led between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving
D. There were concerns about public health leading to the construction between 1876 and 1904 of three separate sewer systems serving
E. There were concerns leading between 1876 and 1904 to the construction of three separate sewer systems for serving

an action finishing in the past must be in past tense. B and C are out
in D, leading modifies health. This is wrong
in E, between 1876 and 1904 modifies leading. This is wrong.
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