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# Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2012, 01:55
In an other case if you are referring to the "which touches the preceding noun" rule and its exception, remember that the rule is flexible. This is difference between SC and Quant in that grammar is not as hardcore as algebra is.

I sent letters to my dad, which got lost in the post office.
Which modifies letters and "to my dad" is a small prepositional phrase.

I sent letters to the post office, which failed to deliver them to my dad.
Here, which modifies the post office.

hope this helps!
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2012, 02:10
NonYankee wrote:
Marcab wrote:
Hii NonYankee.
Can you elaborate on one issue here?
"Contruction of the Roman Colosseum" intoduces a prepositional phrase here-"the Roman Colosseum". Since the prepositional phrase can't contain the subject, then how can "which" refer to "Roman Colosseum"?

Hi Marcab,

First, I don't know why you said that the prepositional phrase can't contain the subject. Is that a rule?

Second, the prepositional phrase doesn't contain the subject. The (simple) subject is construction.

Third, why wouldn't which be allowed to refer to Roman Colosseum?

Consider the following sentences:
She's a friend of my brother Rudolph.
She's a friend of my brother, whom you've met.

Both have as a subject She. Both have as a prepositional object brother. One follows the prepositional object with an appositive; one follows the prepositional object with a non-restrictive relative clause. Both sentences apply modifyers to the object of the preposition, and both are grammatically correct.

You might find these pages worth reading:
http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm
http://www2.gsu.edu/~eslhpb/grammar/lec ... ative.html

consider these sentences:
1)Angela, along with the other leaders of EU, wants Spain to get a bailout.
Here "along with the other leaders of EU" is a part of prepositional phrase.

2) The box of nails, which was kept upon the table, was black in color.
Here we are referring to box.

Since "construction of the Roman Colosseum" also introduces a prepositional phrase, thats why I was confused.

1) http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/f ... subjpp.htm
As per this link, the prepositional phrases as subjects typically refer to only time and space.

2)www.chompchomp.com/terms/prepositionalphrase.htm
As per this link, the prepositional phrases never act as subjects.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2012, 02:47
souvik101990 wrote:
Marcab wrote:
Hii NonYankee.
Can you elaborate on one issue here?
"Contruction of the Roman Colosseum" intoduces a prepositional phrase here-"the Roman Colosseum". Since the prepositional phrase can't contain the subject, then how can "which" refer to "Roman Colosseum"?

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

a) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
b) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
c)which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
d) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
e) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

1. which modifies Colosseum and not construction.
2. subject of the main verbs in the sentence, however, is construction and not the Colosseum.
Is that what you are talking about Marcab?

Hii Souvik.
Can you please elaborate on the blue part?
Also consider this sentence:
Neither of these cookbooks contains the recipe for Manhattan-style squid eyeball stew.

In BDE, what is "officially known as....." modifying? Is it Construction or the Colosseum.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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10 Jul 2013, 17:25
egmat wrote:
Great explanation Shailesh!!

Sanjeeb, you may refer to this article for more official questions and examples:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Regards,
Payal

30. The proposed simplification of the tax code would repeal or modify a number of
popular tax breaks, including the deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so
that income tax rates could be reduced
across the board.
A. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced
B. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates can be
reduced
C. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, which includes the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

D. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so as to reduce income tax rates
E. would repeal and modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

My analysis:
Will is correct as we are not discussing about future in past and also there is no hypothetical situation(so would is out)
From B/C can is the correct choice.So the answer is B.

But can u explain me the usage of which here in option C.A number of popular tax breaks,which includes(So here if which refers to number then includes is fine but if popular tax breaks then it doesn't)..It may be silly one but I got confused..so pls help me out.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2013, 03:31
sanjeebpanda wrote:

30. The proposed simplification of the tax code would repeal or modify a number of
popular tax breaks, including the deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so
that income tax rates could be reduced
across the board.
A. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced
B. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates can be
reduced
C. will repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, which includes the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

D. would repeal or modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so as to reduce income tax rates
E. would repeal and modify a number of popular tax breaks, including the
deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced

My analysis:
Will is correct as we are not discussing about future in past and also there is no hypothetical situation(so would is out)
From B/C can is the correct choice.So the answer is B.

But can u explain me the usage of which here in option C.A number of popular tax breaks,which includes(So here if which refers to number then includes is fine but if popular tax breaks then it doesn't)..It may be silly one but I got confused..so pls help me out.

hi sanjeeb ,

how can you say that which is referring to number.......which is acting as a pronoun......if replace which with number......sentence is:
number includes the deductibility of mortgage interest payments, so that income tax rates could
be reduced===>does that makes sense.....which or what type number includes that....XYZ thing...

now if you relace which with popular tax breaks:
popular tax breaks includes the deductibility of mortgage interest payments(deductibility of mortgage interest is example of tax breaks here)
===>now it does makes sense...==>so number alone doesnt have any meaning here===>so which is refering to popular tax breaks...

hope it helps
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2013, 07:55
Construction of the Roman Colosseum,which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Dear frinds
when we have a specific time........>use simple past tense(began)
which....> correctly modify preceding noun(Roman colosseum)
was.....> is a linking verb so check the parallelism
DO not seperate two verbs that reffer to one subject,with comma
in answer choice (C),the structure of sentence is grammatically correct.....>which was officially known as bla bla bla and was completed bla bla bla
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2013, 04:43
Hi,

In grammatical terms, it's this: "began" is past tense and "begun" is the past participle.

What this means in use is that if you are talking about something in the simple past tense, you would always use "began." These sentences are correct:

- I began music lessons when I was 6.
- The story began in the Colonial Period.
- Where were you when the game began?
- Our relationship began when we were in high school.

A participle can't be used all by itself as a verb. Another verb has to go with it. So you can't say something "begun." You have to say it "has begun," "had begun," "was begun," "will be begun," and so on.

"Begun" would be wrong in every one of the examples above and in any other sentence like them.

Here are some correct uses of "begun." Notice the helping verb (the auxiliary verb) that goes along with it. The verbs can be separated--such as by "not"--but they still work together.

- You cannot be seated after the play has begun.
- I have begun a shopping list.
- We have not yet begun to fight.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2013, 04:54
I get that the OA is C, but what is the difference between began and begun

hi

BEGAN VS BEGUN:

In grammatical terms, it's this: "began" is past tense and "begun" is the past participle.

What this means in use is that if you are talking about something in the simple past tense, you would always use "began." These sentences are correct:

- I began music lessons when I was 6.
- The story began in the Colonial Period.
- Where were you when the game began?
- Our relationship began when we were in high school.

A participle can't be used all by itself as a verb. Another verb has to go with it. So you can't say something "begun." You have to say it "has begun," "had begun," "was begun," "will be begun," and so on.

"Begun" would be wrong in every one of the examples above and in any other sentence like them.

Here are some correct uses of "begun." Notice the helping verb (the auxiliary verb) that goes along with it. The verbs can be separated--such as by "not"--but they still work together.

- You cannot be seated after the play has begun.
- I have begun a shopping list.
- We have not yet begun to fight.

Likewise, if you are using "had" or "have" or another auxiliary, you must use "begun" and not "began." These sentences are all wrong:

WRONG - Have you began your assignment?
WRONG - My shift had began at 3:00.
WRONG - The party has not began yet.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2013, 22:14
In most of the cases, the following pattern appears:

noun+modifier 1+modifier 2.

so, modifier 2 normally modifies (noun+ modifier 1) and dose not need to touch the noun.

however if there is no modifier 1 but a phrase which dose not modifies the noun, the pattern is wrong

I learn English well, which is spoken by many persons

this is wrong because "well" dose not modifier "English"

I learn English of this region, which is spoken by many persons.

this is correct sentence because "of this region" modifies "English"

in short, in most cases, a noun modifiers modifies "noun+noun modifier" not modifies only the noun and can not touch the noun.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2013, 07:54
I do not fully understand, when verbs need to be sequenced (one in past perfect and one in simple past) and when both can be in simple past. In this sentence, I though that when the verb "began" is in the same tense as "completed", it must definitely be wrong, because the first action should have taken place before the second action.

So why is "begun" wrong here...is it because it should have been "had begun"?

Many thanks!
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2013, 05:55
pqhai wrote:
zazoz wrote:

1. 'Construction' is the subject, right? so how this sentence possible : 'construction of the Roman.....began in blah blah'. My point is how the 'construction' began something?? It seems illogical to me. Shouldn't it be 'construction was begun' in 'C'? I know! I must be wrong, but I couldn't justify myself until now.

Hi zazor.

"Construction began in A.D. 69....." is 100% correct. Because "begin" is intransitive verb that is complete in itself and does not require any further elements to make its meaning complete.
For example: When I listen that song, my heart breaks ==> even though "heart" is a passive doer of action "break", but we don't need to say "my heart is broken".
Other intransitive verbs: appear, arrive, begin, break, come, cough, decrease, die, disappear, drown, fall, go, happen,.....

Quote:
2. The verb 'was completed' is passive or 'was' is a linking verb and 'completed' is the adjectives to describe 'construction'. I ask this in regard to my approach to this question; I thought that 'and' must be there, so after 'and' we need a parallel construction, so I said to myself we have 'was completed' so we must have 'was begun' to create parallelism. But when I saw the correct answer I said to myself maybe 'was completed' is not passive (I am REALLY confused) and we need 'began'. When I reached to this point of my logic my first question popped up. Now here I am with lots of paradoxes in my mind. Please help me getting rid of some annoying misunderstandings. Thanks a million.

We have to say "was completed" because "complete" is NOT a transitive verb. ==> The parallel structure in C is: the construction began .....and was completed......

Quote:
3. According to my descriptions, Why 'E' is incorrect?

E is 100% incorrect because "which" modifies " the Flavian Amphitheater" wrongly. Let ask yourself what began in A.D. 69.? the Flavian Amphitheater (the Roman Colosseum) --OR-- The construction? ==> Clearly, the construction did. Thus, "which" is a misplaced modifier --> E is wrong.

Hope it's clear.

Hi pqhai,

Thank you for your detailed answers. With your explanations my concerns cleared out. The concept you explained about Intransitive verbs always apply, right? I mean when we have them in sentences we don't need further helping verb such as is, was, etc. right?

And just to be sure, in this question's parallelism (...began.....and was completed) began is active or passive? ( Regarding your explanations I would answer my question : active) If I am right, Should we have two passive construction to avoid anti-parallelism?

BTW my name tag is zazoz!
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2014, 10:39
jlgdr wrote:
Could someone please elaborate more on the (B) vs (D) split?

Would be happy to throw some Kudos out there

Cheers
J

in both the options, B and D, :
Construction of the Roman Colosseum,officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater.

"officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" is acting as modifier for Roman Colosseum and is giving more information. but if we read the sentence it gives out a meaning as "officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" is modifying "Construction of the Roman Colosseum" which is not correct. So the error can be rectified by using which/that (relative pronoun) to fix the noun.
or the sentence can be started as "Roman Colosseum,officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" - this makes sense.

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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27 May 2015, 08:03
nischalb wrote:
Torn between A & C, still don't understand why 'and' is needed. What are the 2 independent clauses in ths sentence?

Independent Clauses:

Construction of the Roman Colosseum,
which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, ---------------------Modifier
began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, ---------------- 1st IC
was completed a decade later ----------------2nd IC require to separate from 1st IC by connector AND.

Thanks
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2015, 14:30
KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

On Going through the intended meaning of the sentence you feel that Roman Colosseum was officially known as Flavin Amphitheater . If We remove the Noun phrase "Which" then the word Flavin Amphitheater appears to be used for Construction of R.C.. So Which must be there in the sentance.
Between A & C . Now In A the two clauses are added without proper sentance structuture. there must be a conjunction . Analyze by your self
A. Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later.
C. Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,and was completed a decade later.

Obviously C is correct.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2015, 09:09
mahakmalik wrote:
please tell me about how "and" is connecting two independent clauses and what are those clauses?

Hi I am happy to help.

Analyze by your self The two clauses connected by the word and are
1. Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69
2. was completed a decade late

A. Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later.
C. Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,and was completed a decade later.

Obviously C is correct.

Regards
KK
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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 23:22

Just reading the question stem makes it clear that it needs an "AND" at the end of the underlined portion because it is connecting the two clauses:- the main clause and the dependent clause. Therefore the decision point here is the presence of a coordinating non-contrasting conjunction} ---> "AND" in the correct sentence.

Therefore A, D are out because these options do not have the proper conjunction "AND"
Option B, C and E remaining.
Option B and E use "begun" - WRONG TENSE

Option C Uses the correct tense "Began"- Simple Past for begin as well as the proper conjunction "AND"

KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

OG16 SC114

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Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 19 Sep 2016, 10:14, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2016, 12:54
KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

OG16 SC114

C is the correct answer. But, I have a question about C.
here the correct sentence is:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
The core sentence is:
Construction began in A.D. 69 and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.
1) The first part before 'and' is used as active voice but the 2nd part after 'and' is used as passive voice. Is there any rules in GMAT to use active voice and passive voice simultaneously?
2)
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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05 Nov 2016, 16:48
Split1) Parallelism. "began...and was completed" is the correct construction. A, B and D are out

Split2) Participle = begun = cannot be used alone as a verb. B,D and E are out.

Split3) Mofidiers. I would say after reading the saga on on this question that answer C is more grammatically correct vs the other answers, E for instance. the wordm "which...." or "officially known.." both modify the word Construction. This is concluded on an exemption to the "touch rule" where logic defeats hard-core rules.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2017, 15:03
ramyagmatclub wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
[Reveal] Spoiler: C

Doubt is: There are two actions that happened in the past: a) began in A.D. 69 and b) was completed a decade later. If there are two actions that happen in a past and in a sequence, then the 1st action in the sequence should be a past perfect tense Vs past tense. So "began" should be "had begun". Is that not correct?

Dear ramyagmatclub,

I'm happy to respond.

Also, if you do post a GMAT SC, please underline the prompt properly. I added the underlining to your post.

Finally, to answer your question: we have to use the past perfect tense to indicate an earlier past action if there is no other evidence in the sentence that would allow us to figure this out. If there are other markers in the sentence that allow us to figure out the time sequence, then the GMAT often considers it redundant to use the past perfect tense also. In this sentence, there are other time phrases (the year "A.D. 69" and "a decade later") which make the time sequence absolutely unambiguous. No need for the past perfect.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2017, 06:21
reena.phogat wrote:
bay010 wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

The answer is C. But I am not able to discern as to how the part after ',and' is an Independent clause. The phrase 'was completed a decade later' does not have a subject. How is it a independent clause?

2 verbs can exist in a clause if they are connected with AND and OR. Then their subject will same
Otherwise SV pair must be equal to number of clauses in sentence.
Here 2nd clause must have SV pair...But subject is not there so to correct it either we can add a subject or we can connect 2 verbs with and if their subject is same...

Sent from my XT1068 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

I get your point. But when you join two verbs you use only 'and' and when you join to independent clauses/thoughts you use ',and'. Please correct me if I am wrong. Thanks
Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was   [#permalink] 02 Mar 2017, 06:21

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