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# Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio

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Manager
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04 Jul 2014, 07:22
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Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if she is made aware that even one of the company’s toys, used properly, has caused an injury, she temporarily stops production until the problem is fixed or permanently stops production of that toy. If that is true, then I assume that the reason Toiko has announced that it will stop production of its line of wooden puzzles for two months is that at least one individual using one of these puzzles properly has sustained an injury.

The flawed reasoning in the consumer advocate’s argument is most similar to the reasoning in which of the following choices?

A. Since the law states that every sales contract in this state must include a provision allowing purchasers 3 days in which to cancel a sale or renegotiate the terms of the contract, we can assume that local car dealers such as Auto Rex that do not include this provision in their contracts are not aware of this law.

B. Based on the guarantee that Hi-tone Books includes with all of its publications, if any of the books that the publishing company ships to customers is in any way damaged, Hi-Tone will either replace the book at no cost or, if the customer wishes, give a full refund. If so, then I assume I can be fully refunded for the cost of this Hi-Tone book, which arrived with a torn cover.

C. Frank, who was recently fired, must have made an offer to a client without first discussing this offer with one of his supervisors, since the company handbook clearly states that doing so is a justifiable reason for either suspension or termination of employment.

D. A nationwide plumbing company, Plumb Job, states on its website that if one of its parts either malfunctions or breaks completely within two years of installation, the company will repair the problem at no extra cost. Since Plumb Job recently installed new water heaters for a school at no cost, the company must have done work for the school in the past.

E.According to the rules of a card game, any player with a black card has the option of trading this card for a different card or returning the card to the deck. Since Allyson has a black card, she cannot choose to keep this card.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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07 Jul 2014, 02:05
C fits the bill. It mentions the "temporary suspension or permanent discontinuation" clause which relates properly with the argument. Is this understanding correct?

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18 Jul 2014, 15:07
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Yep it is C.

From Argument:
Initial Premise Cause: Damage to Toys --> Effect: Stopping the Production
Conclusion is derived from Effect Cause: ? (Wooden puzzles Might be damaged) Effect: Stopping the production of Wooden Puzzles

Initial Premise Cause: Without the approval of Superior --> Effect: Termination
Conclusion is derived from Effect Cause: ? (Frank might have offered with out consulting superior) Effect: Frank Terminated

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24 Jul 2014, 08:16
Split between C and D.
Can anyone shed some light on this?

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24 Jul 2014, 23:32
I think the main point to keep in mind is that the reason mentioned is NOT the ONLY reason. So the toy might have been discontinued for any other reason besides safety ( say profitability) similarly Frank might have been terminated for any other reason ( say poor attendance )

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29 Aug 2014, 04:52
Right - D is tempting, however the reason that C is a better choice is that the conclusion of D is "Plumb Job must have done work for the school in the past" - logic that might not be right because we have no information regarding repeat business, but is not exactly the same as "the water heaters installed by Plumb Job must have broken in the first year" (a statement which would make D analogous to both C and the stem).

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20 Sep 2015, 10:41
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Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if she is made aware that even one of the company’s toys, used properly, has caused an injury, she temporarily stops production until the problem is fixed or permanently stops production of that toy. If that is true, then I assume that the reason Toiko has announced that it will stop production of its line of wooden puzzles for two months is that at least one individual using one of these puzzles properly has sustained an injury.

The flawed reasoning in the consumer advocate’s argument is most similar to the reasoning in which of the following choices?

(A) Since the law states that every sales contract in this state must include a provision allowing purchasers 3 days in which to cancel a sale or renegotiate the terms of the contract, we can assume that local car dealers such as Auto Rex that do not include this provision in their contracts are not aware of this law.

(B) Based on the guarantee that Hi-tone Books includes with all of its publications, if any of the books that the publishing company ships to customers is in any way damaged, Hi-Tone will either replace the book at no cost or, if the customer wishes, give a full refund. If so, then I assume I can be fully refunded for the cost of this Hi-Tone book, which arrived with a torn cover.

(C) Frank, who was recently fired, must have made an offer to a client without first discussing this offer with one of his supervisors, since the company handbook clearly states that doing so is a justifiable reason for either suspension or termination of employment.

(D) A nationwide plumbing company, Plumb Job, states on its website that if one of its parts either malfunctions or breaks completely within two years of installation, the company will repair the problem at no extra cost. Since Plumb Job recently installed new water heaters for a school at no cost, the company must have done work for the school in the past.

(E) According to the rules of a card game, any player with a black card has the option of trading this card for a different card or returning the card to the deck. Since Allyson has a black card, she cannot choose to keep this card.
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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if sh [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2015, 01:21
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Nice question. +1 kudos to you.

Here, the argument is a classic case of concluding C based on premise P1, while assuming that no other premise P2 will lead to the same C.

In other words, the author assumes that P1 is the only possible case that can cause conclusion C.

Let's evaluate the options on this basis.

alphaseeker wrote:
Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if she is made aware that even one of the company’s toys, used properly, has caused an injury, she temporarily stops production until the problem is fixed or permanently stops production of that toy. If that is true, then I assume that the reason Toiko has announced that it will stop production of its line of wooden puzzles for two months is that at least one individual using one of these puzzles properly has sustained an injury.

The flawed reasoning in the consumer advocate’s argument is most similar to the reasoning in which of the following choices?

(A) Since the law states that every sales contract in this state must include a provision allowing purchasers 3 days in which to cancel a sale or renegotiate the terms of the contract, we can assume that local car dealers such as Auto Rex that do not include this provision in their contracts are not aware of this law. => Here, premise (P) states that EVERY car dealer must do something that Auto Rex is not doing. So, there is no question of a possible cause P2 because of which Auto Rex would have ignored the law. The use of 'every' makes P binding.

(B) Based on the guarantee that Hi-tone Books includes with all of its publications, if any of the books that the publishing company ships to customers is in any way damaged, Hi-Tone will either replace the book at no cost or, if the customer wishes, give a full refund. If so, then I assume I can be fully refunded for the cost of this Hi-Tone book, which arrived with a torn cover. => A classic misleading answer because it appears to talk of similar things compared to the question - viz. the guarantee on a product. However, it is misleading. Here, P will lead to C. There is no P2 which can lead to C directly, as P is stated as a uncontested fact (that the book got torn in transit). The author merely states that C will be the result, without stating that C cannot occur with any other P. This is different than the argument.

(C) Frank, who was recently fired, must have made an offer to a client without first discussing this offer with one of his supervisors, since the company handbook clearly states that doing so is a justifiable reason for either suspension or termination of employment. => This presupposes that Frank was not fired for any other reason, i.e. the P stated is the only possible reason that could lead to termination of the employee. This is most similar to the argument in the question.

(D) A nationwide plumbing company, Plumb Job, states on its website that if one of its parts either malfunctions or breaks completely within two years of installation, the company will repair the problem at no extra cost. Since Plumb Job recently installed new water heaters for a school at no cost, the company must have done work for the school in the past. =>Like (B), this is a classic misleading answer because it appears to talk of similar things compared to the question - viz. the guarantee on a product. However, it is misleading. There is absolutely no link between P and C in this case.

(E) According to the rules of a card game, any player with a black card has the option of trading this card for a different card or returning the card to the deck. Since Allyson has a black card, she cannot choose to keep this card. => Option is construed as a compulsion. This is not comparable to the given question. F => P1 or P2. Since F is true for Allyson, she must choose P1. This is not structurally similar to the argument, where no P2 is mentioned and in fact, it is assumed that there is no P2. Here, P2 is explicitly mentioned and P1 is chosen.

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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if sh [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2015, 10:27
I found it hard to decide between C and D.

What helped me was:

argument
if X (one of the company’s toys, used properly, has caused an injury)
then Y (she temporarily stops production until the problem is fixed)
OR Z (permanently stops production of that toy)
Z happened then the argument concludes wrongly that X must have happened

This is most similar to answer C:
if X (doing so-making an offer without discussing with his supervisors)
can lead to Y (justifiable reason for either suspension)
OR Z (termination of employment)
Z happened then the argument wrongly concludes that X must have happened

In answer D, "installed new water heaters" do not necessarily mean that they fixed heaters + there is only one outcome for the premise (If X then Y, no Z) so we are further away from the original statement.

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15 Jun 2016, 13:33
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17 Jun 2017, 15:04
Any one to explain why b is not correct?

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19 Jun 2017, 07:06
The flaw reasoning in stimulus is > A --> B hence B ---> A.
C states the same but reverse order.
D states the same too but what i observe is that company parts are dmged it will repair. but we don't know who will install these parts not given. very tempting answer . But C is right.

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18 Aug 2017, 11:12
Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operations, if she is made aware that even one of the company’s toys, used properly, has caused an injury, she temporarily stops production until the problem is fixed or permanently stops production of that toy. If that is true, then I assume that the reason Toiko has announced that it will stop production of its line of wooden puzzles for two months is that at least one individual using one of these puzzles properly has sustained an injury.

The flawed reasoning in the consumer advocate’s argument is most similar to the reasoning in which of the following choices?

A) Since the law states that every sales contract in this state must include a provision allowing purchasers 3 days in which to cancel a sale or renegotiate the terms of the contract, we can assume that local car dealers such as Auto Rex that do not include this provision in their contracts are not aware of this law.

B) Based on the guarantee that Hi-tone Books includes with all of its publications, if any of the books that the publishing company ships to customers is in any way damaged, Hi-Tone will either replace the book at no cost or, if the customer wishes, give a full refund. If so, then I assume I can be fully refunded for the cost of this Hi-Tone book, which arrived with a torn cover.

C) Frank, who was recently fired, must have made an offer to a client without first discussing this offer with one of his supervisors, since the company handbook clearly states that doing so is a justifiable reason for either suspension or termination of employment.

D) A nationwide plumbing company, Plumb Job, states on its website that if one of its parts either malfunctions or breaks completely within two years of installation, the company will repair the problem at no extra cost. Since Plumb Job recently installed new water heaters for a school at no cost, the company must have done work for the school in the past.

E) According to the rules of a card game, any player with a black card has the option of trading this card for a different card or returning the card to the deck. Since Allyson has a black card, she cannot choose to keep this card.
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Last edited by broall on 19 Aug 2017, 02:21, edited 1 time in total.
Merged topic. Please search before posting question.

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21 Aug 2017, 07:48
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Consumer advocate: According to Toiko’s director of operatio   [#permalink] 21 Aug 2017, 07:48
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