CR auto accident victims : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# CR auto accident victims

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Intern
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CR auto accident victims [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2008, 21:46
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This is a critical reasoning question which relies heavily on mathematics, I think...however I just do not understand how to do it.

A recent survey of all auto accident victims in Dole County found that, of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents. This indicates that, by wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.

The conclusion above is not properly drawn unless which of the following is true?

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.

(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when travelling by car.

(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured.

(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.

(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.
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Re: CR auto accident victims [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2008, 02:44
Given: 80% were not wearing the seat belts at the time of their accidents.
Conclusion: This indicates that, by wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.

In order to draw the conclusion correctly, we need to answer choice that clearly points the scope of higher number survey members that were wearing the seat belts at the time of their accident and reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.

For our analysis: Let’s limit number of survey members to one hundred

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.[ Survey members wearing seat belts (X) at the time of their accidents falls into range 21 < X < 100 – this implies not wearing seat belts members (Y) 1 < Y < 20 – Number of severely injured accidents victims = 80% * Y = 16)

(B) Considerably more than 20 percent of drivers and front-seat passengers in Dole County always wear seat belts when traveling by car. [We are interested in members at the time of their accidents – eliminate it]

(C) More drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey than rear-seat passengers were very severely injured.[rear-seat members not mentioned in the argument – eliminate it]

(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.[ Members not wearing seat belts(Y) 51< Y < 100 members wearing seat belts 1 < X < 50 - Number of severely injured accidents victims = 80% * Y = 80]

(E) Most of the auto accidents reported to police in Dole County do not involve any serious injury.[What report to police immaterial to argument – eliminate it]

Between A and D: In order to support the conclusion, we require answer choice that indicates lower number accidents victims.

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09 Feb 2008, 04:33
(A) is indeed correct, but I am not sure how to apply your method...

The question says that "...of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers, 80 percent were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents." Correct me if I'm wrong, but this is equal to saying that "80 percent of the severely injured drivers and front-seat passengers were not wearing seat belts".

But in your calculations for (A) and (D), you have used the assumption that "80% of those not wearing seat belts are severely injured."

(1) 80% of severely injured are not wearing seat belts

(2) 80% of those not wearing seat belts are severely injured

Do the above two phrases (1) and (2) mean the same thing?
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09 Feb 2008, 13:06
Take number 100:

The conclusion is drawn on the assumption that there were at least some drivers who didn't get severely injured AND who had seat belts on. The assumption is required - otherwise you would end up questioning what is the point in wearing seat belts when you get injured anyway (assuming all 100 people were severely injured - 80 with seat belts on and 20 without).
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Re: CR auto accident victims [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2008, 15:25

This is a very good question. The question has following intricacies:
1. Mathematical factor
2. Negation or except rephrasing.

Without mathematical interface:

Given: A major percentage of auto accident victims are found not wearing seat belts. This indicates that, by wearing seat belts, drivers and front-seat passengers can greatly reduce their risk of being severely injured if they are in an auto accident.

The conclusion above is not[*] properly drawn unless which of the following is true?

In other words, which of the following answer choices contradicts the above conclusion: The straight answer choice deemphasizes the conclusion?

- Answer choice must provide information that more than 80% were not wearing seat belts at the time of accidents

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.[ This choice is impossible as more than 20% were wearing the seat-belts – eliminate it]

(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.[This is the choice directly supports by wearing seat-belts, server accidents can be minimized – hold it]

The conclusion above is not properly drawn unless which of the following is true?
OR
EXCEPT, the conclusion above is properly drawn unless which of the following is true?

In other words, which of the following answer choices does not contradicts the above conclusion: The straight answer choice emphasizes the conclusion?

- Answer choice must provide information that more than 20% were wearing seat-belts at the time of accident.

(A) Of all the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey, more than 20 percent were wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents[This makes the conclusion invalid - Hold it]

(D) More than half of the drivers and front-seat passengers in the survey were not wearing seat belts at the time of their accidents.[This choice supports conclusion – eliminate it]

Hope this explains.
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09 Feb 2008, 20:41
Hmm, I think I am getting the hang of it. The assumption I have to make is that there are drivers who wore seat belts and weren't severely injured. Then next would be to find out the strongest answer choice i.e. the choice with more people wearing seat belts and not severely injured.

Obviously (A) then...thanks for your help, hanumayamma and srp!
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Re: CR auto accident victims [#permalink]

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11 Feb 2008, 15:58
Straight A
Re: CR auto accident victims   [#permalink] 11 Feb 2008, 15:58
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