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# Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business

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Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2010, 21:01
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Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months
(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are
(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, is
(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are
(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, are
(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, is

I do not agree with the OA Posted, can someone please have a look and advise ?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2010, 21:19
[quote="devashish"]Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months
(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, arebest option
(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, isSubject verb agreement problem.
(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are the usage of "it" is ambiguous.
(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, aretoo wordy
(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, iscan be eliminated because of "is"

I hope my explanation is right!!

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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2010, 22:51
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Except A, all the rest suffer from some kind of a fault.

(B) Declining revenues is – SV number disagreement

C) A fragment without a verb in the first part.

D) Commercial airlines – who--- wrong pronoun to denote a thing.

E) Declining revenues …. Is –SV disagreement

What is the problem in A?
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 00:38
As I understand from MGMAT SC, Phrases starting with Present Particpile ( -ing ) should take a singular verb. Hence I think B is correct and not A.

Please advise if I am wrong ?
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 02:18
Quote:
As I understand from MGMAT SC, Phrases starting with Present Particpile ( -ing ) should take a singular verb. Hence I think B is correct and not A.

Look at the given sentence

Going from strength to strength, Indian athletes have gathered more than a hundred medals in CWG.
The sentence starts with a present participial and the verb is the plural -have gathered – Any thing wrong?

May be MGMAT SC is being quoted out of place.
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 11:45
daagh wrote:
Quote:
As I understand from MGMAT SC, Phrases starting with Present Particpile ( -ing ) should take a singular verb. Hence I think B is correct and not A.

Look at the given sentence

Going from strength to strength, Indian athletes have gathered more than a hundred medals in CWG.
The sentence starts with a present participial and the verb is the plural -have gathered – Any thing wrong?

May be MGMAT SC is being quoted out of place.

Hi Daagh,

Your sentence above is correct. However that is because the subject in your sentence is 'Indian Athletes' and not the Present-Participle phrase. This is not the case for the sentence in question, where the Participle Phrase acts as the Subject of the verb 'to-be' (are). Hence I think I am correct.

Nonetheless Expert opinion is more than welcome. Also the MGMAT SC is not quoted out of place as there is a whole section in Chapter 3 named 'Subject Phrases and Clauses - Always Singular'
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 13:21
devashish wrote:
As I understand from MGMAT SC, Phrases starting with Present Particpile ( -ing ) should take a singular verb. Hence I think B is correct and not A.

Please advise if I am wrong ?

Declining revenues - it is plural, not singular.
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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26 Oct 2010, 20:27
A.

Declining revenues should be followed by are.

C is wrong for using and, as using and distorts the meaning.
D is wrong for the wrong use of which.
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2010, 17:54
Straight A, since Renvenues is plural...
IMO A
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2010, 07:13
Straight A
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2010, 07:55
Step1: Look for S-V agreement error if any.
In the questions yes: Subject is: declining revenues; verb must be "are"

(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are
(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, is - out(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are - we do not need to independent clauses. eliminate
(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, are - the restrictive pronoun "which" is not modifying the correcr noun. out
(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, is -same as D
So in A, all os this is taken care.

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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2010, 11:46
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This question is a perfect platform for a Modifier strategy we call "Use It or Lose It":

When you're presented with a modifier on the GMAT, you either "Use It" to eliminate that answer choice (because it's an incorrect modifier) or you "Lose It" (read as though it weren't there to get a better sense of subject-verb agreement and other errors.

Here, "a source of income..." logically modifies "business travel", so we can "Lose It' with that modifier and bring the rest of the sentence closer together:

Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel ARE/IS going to force...

Now we can look at the remaining sentence and again eliminate a modifier: "resulting from..." modifies "declining revenues", so really this sentence is just saying that:

Declining revenues ARE going to force...

By eliminating that modifier we know that the subject is plural and we'll need "ARE" as the verb to match.

C and D each contain multiple errors (C uses "it" as a pronoun that really needs to refer back to the subject "revenues", plus it ends a statement with a preposition "with"; D is just horrendously long and uses redundant terms throughout), so the only potential answer is A. A is much easier to get to if you're seen that you can ignore the modifier that seeks to separate the subject from the verb. Because we couldn't "Use It" to eliminate the answer choice, we can "Lose It" to make a much shorter, easier-to-dissect sentence, leading us to A.
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2010, 12:16
[quote="devashish"]As I understand from MGMAT SC, Phrases starting with Present Particpile ( -ing ) should take a singular verb. quote]

I did the same mistake, thought that the subject was singular because of the word «declining».

Someone can explain why they have written that in MGMAT SC?

Last edited by maive on 24 Nov 2010, 12:37, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2010, 12:20
Hi all,

Try to split and resplit the asnwer choices by looking at the begining and at the end of the sentence.
Read It vertically. Scan and Kill it. (RiSK) (c)

So what do you see here. Look the following splits:
1) A, B - begin with a source of income, C- with and, D, E- begin with which
2) Plural A, C, D/singular - B, E

Decide what is wrong let say in 2). subject "Declining revenues" - they are or it is???! Must be they are. So cross out B, E.
now go to 1) we have still 3 different subsplits A, C and D.
which must refer to the noun just before it. Is travel is a source of income? not for us. Kill D and move on.
Make sure you have crossed out B,E and D. Now you have 50% probability to get this SC right.

Now, even if you are stuck between choices A and C, read C carefully. Do you see smth wrong ?
first, it is ambigous here, to what does it refer? seems to business travel, is it really so ? nope.
second, to survive with - is awkward ask yourself with what??! why infinitive?
third, and is used in either parallel structures or enumeration, do you see that neither of cases is applicable to C? Cross it.
So answer is A.

Quote:
Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months
(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are
(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, is
(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are
(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, are
(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, is

I do not agree with the OA Posted, can someone please have a look and advise ?

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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2010, 23:26
+1 A
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2011, 04:52
VeritasPrepBrian wrote:
This question is a perfect platform for a Modifier strategy we call "Use It or Lose It":

When you're presented with a modifier on the GMAT, you either "Use It" to eliminate that answer choice (because it's an incorrect modifier) or you "Lose It" (read as though it weren't there to get a better sense of subject-verb agreement and other errors.

Here, "a source of income..." logically modifies "business travel", so we can "Lose It' with that modifier and bring the rest of the sentence closer together:

Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel ARE/IS going to force...

Now we can look at the remaining sentence and again eliminate a modifier: "resulting from..." modifies "declining revenues", so really this sentence is just saying that:

Declining revenues ARE going to force...

By eliminating that modifier we know that the subject is plural and we'll need "ARE" as the verb to match.

C and D each contain multiple errors (C uses "it" as a pronoun that really needs to refer back to the subject "revenues", plus it ends a statement with a preposition "with"; D is just horrendously long and uses redundant terms throughout), so the only potential answer is A. A is much easier to get to if you're seen that you can ignore the modifier that seeks to separate the subject from the verb. Because we couldn't "Use It" to eliminate the answer choice, we can "Lose It" to make a much shorter, easier-to-dissect sentence, leading us to A.

Can you please also explain why the subject "Declining Revenues" is plural according to you. I believe it is a subject phrase and shud be singular. I do not see any convincing explanation.
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business [#permalink]

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15 May 2012, 20:57
+1 A
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Re: Struggling Airlines [#permalink]

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18 May 2012, 09:47
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oldstudent wrote:
Can you please also explain why the subject "Declining Revenues" is plural according to you. I believe it is a subject phrase and shud be singular. I do not see any convincing explanation.

Hi there,
Verb-ing words are modifiers that define certain entities, depending on their placement in the sentence. Also, verb-ing words act as gerunds. Gerunds are formed by adding “ing” to any verb but they are nouns.

Now when a gerund is the subject of a sentence, then it is singular. Let’s understand this with the help of few examples:

1. Swimming is my favorite sport.
2. Listening to music works as the best stress buster for me.

In the above two sentences, “swimming” and “listening” are gerunds. They are nouns that form the subject of the sentence. Since “swimming” and “listening” are gerunds, they are singular in number and take singular verbs “is” and “works” respectively.

Now, if the sentence has two or more gerunds as subjects connected with proper conjunctions, then the verb will become plural. For example:
1. Swimming and listening to music relax me the most after a long day at work.

Now let’s take a look at the original sentence:

Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months.

Now here “declining” is a verb-ing word. Notice that “declining” is not a gerund here. It is modifier or an adjective that is modifying the noun “revenues”. It is showing one of the qualities of the revenues. So, technically the subject of the sentence is “revenues”. And since it has an adjective before it that cannot be left out as it shows one of its features, the subject becomes “declining revenues”. Now, since “revenues” is plural, we need plural verb. Answer choice A has the correct verb “are” that agrees in number with “revenues” or rather “declining revenues”.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2012, 21:20
devashish wrote:
Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business travel, a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are going to force many commercial airlines to increase prices and decrease services in the coming months
(A) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, are
(B) a source of income without which most commercial airlines could not survive, is
(C) and most commercial airlines use it as a source of income to survive with, are
(D) which is a source of income which is needed by most commercial airlines who could not survive without it, are
(E) which most commercial airlines use as a source of income without which they are unable to survive, is

I do not agree with the OA Posted, can someone please have a look and advise ?

I have a query here,from the sentence it looks like the "Declining revenues" is a source of income which doesnt make sense. How is A correct then?How does "source of income" refer to "business travel" ?Can someone explain please?

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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2012, 12:05
[/qoute]I have a query here,from the sentence it looks like the "Declining revenues" is a source of income which doesnt make sense. How is A correct then?How does "source of income" refer to "business travel" ?Can someone explain please?[/qoute]

Hi rahul..

Business travel is a source of..y it cant b? comma after business travel shows that it is modifies by source of income.

Decling revenues is plural thats y ARE is required..

We can eliminate B and E..

we have A C D..

C is wordy..

D is wrong because of And.., we should modify travel..

hope it helps..
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Re: Declining revenues resulting from a decrease in business   [#permalink] 31 Oct 2012, 12:05

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