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# Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral

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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2012, 21:22
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234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by ankurgupta03 on 27 Feb 2014, 00:38, edited 1 time in total.
underlined the question
If you have any questions
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05 Mar 2012, 21:41
D sounds like the modifier is for 'declining value'. right?
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05 Mar 2012, 21:46
outbackvandy wrote:
D sounds like the modifier is for 'declining value'. right?

Which can modify only the noun preceding
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05 Mar 2012, 23:35
The first part or before the comma is modifying "the collateral". Declining values is the subject of the overall sentence and happens to be plural. Therefore, the verb needs to be plural "are". The answer is E.
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06 Mar 2012, 00:40
mourinhogmat1 wrote:
The first part or before the comma is modifying "the collateral". Declining values is the subject of the overall sentence and happens to be plural. Therefore, the verb needs to be plural "are". The answer is E.

The catch here is between option D and E - both use "are". Please explain the difference
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06 Mar 2012, 00:57
devinawilliam83 wrote:
mourinhogmat1 wrote:
The first part or before the comma is modifying "the collateral". Declining values is the subject of the overall sentence and happens to be plural. Therefore, the verb needs to be plural "are". The answer is E.[/
quote]
The catch here is between option D and E - both use "are". Please explain the difference

Between D and E it's pretty straight forward. "which" is modifying the harvest seasons in D. This is wrong because original intention is to say : declining values = collateral --> used by farmers and NOT harvest season = collateral --> used by farmers.
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06 Mar 2012, 02:40
Hey,

IMO, in most of the questions i have encountered so far an '-ing' modifier at the beginning of the sentence modifies a Noun. In this case, The collateral is the Noun, which the 'Declining values..' modifies.

Also, most of the times the relative pronoun 'which' refers to the preceding noun. But, at times 'which' when preceded by a Noun + prepositional phrase will refer to the Noun.

In this question, 'which' can also refer to the 'Declining values'. But, choice 'E' overrides this ambiguity by using 'the collateral' to be modified by the '-ing' modifier.

Please correct me if am wrong.

HTH.
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06 Mar 2012, 03:40
Correct answer is E --the collateral is appositive here modifying farm equipment and land

D -- is quite awkward though don't have Subject Verb Agreement error
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07 Mar 2012, 19:51
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
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15 Mar 2012, 03:50
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ENAFEX wrote:
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is

Declining values for farm equipment and land,---------, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring

therefore it should be 'are' not 'is' (Declining values is plural).

correct me if i am wrong.

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15 Mar 2012, 06:02
ENAFEX wrote:
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is

Declining values for farm equipment and land,---------, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring

therefore it should be 'are' not 'is' (Declining values is plural).

correct me if i am wrong.

You are right. Thanks. Not sure what I was thinking about. May be I got carried away reading only the anwer choices..
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23 Mar 2012, 16:44
E. The question has been discussed in a recent thread.
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23 Mar 2012, 20:44
+1 E

The declining values is plural hence requires are
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2014, 20:53
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2014, 09:56
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devinawilliam83 wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land.

I think option B, D which refers to "declining values". So declining values cannot be used as a collateral. Hence both of them are eliminated.

A, B, C can be eliminated - Subject verb agreement of "farm equipment and land" and "is" is incorrect.

E stays as the best answer.

Thanks
Ankit

PS: Do hit the Kudos button if you like the explanation.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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25 Jun 2014, 02:54
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devinawilliam83 wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land.

Errors
1. Subject-verb agreement ( Declining values,........, are ) A,B,C eliminated
2. Idioms - Collateral to ( incorrect), Collateral against (correct )
Borrow against ( suspect ) , borrow to ( correct ) ... D eliminated

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2016, 09:14
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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01 May 2016, 23:09
ankit546 wrote:
devinawilliam83 wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land.

I think option B, D which refers to "declining values". So declining values cannot be used as a collateral. Hence both of them are eliminated.

A, B, C can be eliminated - Subject verb agreement of "farm equipment and land" and "is" is incorrect.

E stays as the best answer.

Thanks
Ankit

PS: Do hit the Kudos button if you like the explanation.

Subject here is "declining values" not "farm equipment and land"
D is wrong because which modifies only preceding noun, in this case only land. but we don't want that.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2017, 06:57
The OA is correct and explanations provided in the thread appear sufficient. If there are any specific questions, please post them here and then click again on the "Request Expert Reply" button – closing this request.
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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2017, 19:39
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Hi sayantanc2k
I have few doubts and would be happy if you can clarify..
In the above sentence, I understand that, the collateral is defined for values (which are declining) of farm equipment and land, and the same acts as Resumptive Modifier. Please correct this, if it is wrong. I got the understanding about Resumtpive modifier from - a-group-of-paleontologists-recently-announced-that-a-site-in-89765.html#p1700111

Now, I found a similar post of Manhantten Verbal Legend - RON, which describes similar concept about concrete noun and abstract noun.(https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... tml#p35386)
The terminologies used in the post and mentioned for Resumptive modifier are similar and thus, I am not able to differentiate between two. Can you please explain this with few examples and also in a given sentence, how can I figure out that some term is a resumptive modifier or an abstract noun?

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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral   [#permalink] 05 Jan 2017, 19:39

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