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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against

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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are


https://www.nytimes.com/1983/01/16/us/in-farm-belt-fear-of-foreclosures-rises.html

Bankers here say that loan delinquencies, already triple what they were a year ago, could reach 10 times normal levels. Meanwhile, declining values for farm equipment and land - the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season - is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

Question1:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

In E what does the appositive "collateral" really modify - "declining values..." or "farm equipment and land".

Question2:
If I changed (D) to the below

(D) which farmers use as collateral to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Now from the above two which would you choose as the answer?

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2013, 03:50
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sahilchaudhary wrote:
EducationAisle wrote:
honchos wrote:
Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?


It is not used as a gerund (noun) here; it is used as an "adjective" ("-ing" form of verb, used as an adjective, is called participle).


Hi Ashish,

Please explain why is D incorrect and E correct.


Answer D is incorrect because it repeats the same information in two phrases: "use (something) as collateral" and "borrow against (something)." It is enough to use only one of these expressions. Thus answer D is redundant. Moreover, the preposition "against" should not be placed at the end of the modifier. It should be close to the noun that it refers to ( "collateral").
Answer E corrects both mistakes. It uses the less wordy modifier "the collateral against which farmers borrow...". In addition, the preposition "against" is placed at the beginning of the modifying clause, near the noun "collateral" and not at the end of the clause.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2012, 23:09
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The level of credibility of A, B and C is seemingly out of doubt, so we should concentrane on D and E in the first 10 seconds after reading the sentence. In my native language the translated phrase " the collateral against which farmers borrow" sounds perfectly correct, so I would definitely go with that version. On the other hand, borrow against in D, sounds implausible, maybe "bet against" or "insure against", but not "borrow against" because it doesen't make sense.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jan 2013, 07:39
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catgmat wrote:
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
wrong meaning, the farmers don't use the declining values as an collateral to get through the winter, therefore wrong!
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
'Declining values...and land, the collateral...' clearly modiefied, 'are' used as verb. Best answer!


I do not see any issues with "Which" Vs "The". The usage of either an appositive or adjective clause doesn't make any difference. Both the ways convey a nonrestrictive description of "farm equipment and land".

But consider below:
Omit the excessive portion.

Declining values for farm equipment and land, which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

Problems:
Clause ends with preposition : "against"
If we add the extra portion ... to borrow against.. to get through... This double infinitive kind of lengthens the sentence. In GMAT short is sweet.

Though above issues are not major, still in presence of a better choice E - these issues are accountable.

Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrowto get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

This looks good.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2013, 22:45
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sahilchaudhary wrote:
Hi Ashish,

Please explain why is D incorrect and E correct.

Couple of issues with D:

a) At the very least, "which" is ambiguous, since it is not clear whether "which" is modifying "land" or "equipment and land". In fact, for the most part, "which" is not likely to ever modify a "list" ("equipment and land" in this case).

b) "which farmers use as collateral to borrow against" does not conform with GMAT‘s stylistic preference. Modifier clauses (especially relative clauses) should not end with a preposition. Here, this clause ends in a preposition "against".
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 26 Feb 2014, 23:38
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234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land. :?:

Originally posted by devinawilliam83 on 05 Mar 2012, 20:22.
Last edited by ankurgupta03 on 26 Feb 2014, 23:38, edited 1 time in total.
underlined the question
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2014, 08:56
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devinawilliam83 wrote:
234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land. :?:


I think option B, D which refers to "declining values". So declining values cannot be used as a collateral. Hence both of them are eliminated.

A, B, C can be eliminated - Subject verb agreement of "farm equipment and land" and "is" is incorrect.

E stays as the best answer.

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PS: Do hit the Kudos button if you like the explanation.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2016, 20:36
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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through
the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.


(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Declining values so it should be "are"

Ron explanation:-

one real problem with choice (d) is the modifier “to borrow against”, which ends with a preposition. modifiers are not allowed to end with prepositions.
this is a very common form in spoken language, but it's incorrect in the written language.
examples:

wrong: "the restaurant (that) we ate at on friday was crowded."
right: "the restaurant at which we ate on friday was crowded."

wrong: "the person joe spoke to yesterday told him that ..."
right: "the person to whom joe spoke yesterday told him that ..."

wrong: "now that i've moved, i need to find a new grocery store to shop at."
right: "now that i've moved, i need to find a new grocery store at which to shop.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2017, 14:28
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RMD007 wrote:
Hi sayantanc2k
I have few doubts and would be happy if you can clarify..
In the above sentence, I understand that, the collateral is defined for values (which are declining) of farm equipment and land, and the same acts as Resumptive Modifier. Please correct this, if it is wrong. I got the understanding about Resumtpive modifier from - a-group-of-paleontologists-recently-announced-that-a-site-in-89765.html#p1700111

Now, I found a similar post of Manhantten Verbal Legend - RON, which describes similar concept about concrete noun and abstract noun.(https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... tml#p35386)
The terminologies used in the post and mentioned for Resumptive modifier are similar and thus, I am not able to differentiate between two. Can you please explain this with few examples and also in a given sentence, how can I figure out that some term is a resumptive modifier or an abstract noun?

Thanks in Advance


Understanding the difference between the following two types of modifiers would hopefully clarify your doubt:

1. Appositive modifier: A noun used to modify another noun:

Marc, my best FRIEND, will come tomorrow.
Here the noun "friend" modifies another noun "Marc" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "my best" is an adjectival phrase that modifies the appositive "friend" in turn).
Now consider option E and compare with the above:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, THE COLLATERAL against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.
Here the noun "the collateral" modifies another noun phrase"farm equipment and land" and hence is an appositive. (Also note that "against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season" is a relative clause modifier that modifies the appositive"the collateral" in turn).

2. Absolute phrase modifier: A noun + noun modifier structure used to refer to a clause as a whole. (The following example is from Manhattan SC guide)

Scientists have found high levels of iridium in certain geological formations around the world, results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier = that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause.

2a. Resumptive modifier: A special case of Absolute phrase modifier - the noun within the absolute phrase is a repetition of another noun already used in the clause.
Scientists presented the results of their research , results that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago.
The underlined part above is the absolute phrase modifier (Noun = results, noun modifier: that suggest the cataclysmic impact of a meteor millions of years ago). THe absolute phrase modifier modifies the whole clause. THe noun "results" is repeated.

Abstract noun is something else altogether and bears no relation with the above discussion. A noun that cannot be touched, but can only be felt is an abstract noun. Examples: love, faith, trust, pain etc. (You may go through any high school grammar book to recapitulate the different types of nouns).

Please note that the noun within the absolute phrase modifier (or resumptive modifier) need not be an abstract noun -
After decades of hard work, the workers built the monument, the monument that we all have read about in the history book.
The noun within the resumptive modifier ("The monument") is NOT an abstract noun, but a common noun.


Please let me know if you still have doubts.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2012, 02:50
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ENAFEX wrote:
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is


Declining values for farm equipment and land,---------, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring

therefore it should be 'are' not 'is' (Declining values is plural).

correct me if i am wrong.

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2013, 03:24
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Choosing between D and E is certainly tricky here. D is redundant. To "use [something] as collateral" is "to borrow against" that thing. You can say one or the other in a sentence (and D goes with the "borrow against" version) but, if you use both, you're saying the same thing twice! Most people miss that on this one - tough one.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2013, 01:25
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Aristocrat wrote:
I have came across many times with these question.
and always misinterpret Declining values for farm equipment and land as a singular phrase.
and chosen option 'A'
any idea how to differentiate between Adjective in these one as 'Declining' from phrases that starts from '-ING' form?


whenever a clause or a phrase acts as a subject of a clause, it is always singular.
ex-"............., but what is much more difficult to determine IS.....". In the example, " But what ...........determine" is an intermediate clause, and the subject of this clause is "what is much more to difficult to determine". Hence we have a singular subject here.

Aristocrat, in the question above, the subject of the status quo phrase is "Declining values". We must remember that subject of the clause or phrase can't reside in the prep. phrase unless there is some quantity word. Hence Declining Values is correctly modified by "are".
Hope that helps.
Do let me know if anything remains unclear.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2013, 05:28
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honchos wrote:
Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?


It is not used as a gerund (noun) here; it is used as an "adjective" ("-ing" form of verb, used as an adjective, is called participle).
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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vinod332002 wrote:
Thanks for the reply, but I dont quite follow how "which" leads to an incorrect meaning in D - which modifies the word (noun) closest.. here cant farm equipment and land be what "which" refers to?

Hi Vinod, GMAT exhibits a preference for that, when the intent is to refer to a list (such as farm equipment and land in this case). Hence, in this sentence, which would refer to land only, and this is an issue here.

Quote:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

Actually there is another issue with this. As a matter of (what we call) writing preference, you would never find any correct sentence on GMAT where the clause ends in a preposition. So, the clause which farmers use as collateral to borrow against would not be correct, because this clause ends with a preposition against.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2007, 06:56
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234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
'Decling values... are going to force..', therefore 'is' is wrong
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
'Decling values... are going to force..', therefore 'is' is wrong
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
'Decling values... are going to force..', therefore 'is' is wrong
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
wrong meaning, the farmers don't use the declining values as an collateral to get through the winter, therefore wrong!
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are
'Declining values...and land, the collateral...' clearly modiefied, 'are' used as verb. Best answer!
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2012, 18:51
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jan 2013, 01:07
I have came across many times with these question.
and always misinterpret Declining values for farm equipment and land as a singular phrase.
and chosen option 'A'
any idea how to differentiate between Adjective in these one as 'Declining' from phrases that starts from '-ING' form?
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2013, 16:31
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hi,

since the non underline part is starting with Verbing participle so it has to modify the subject of the sentence so if you think the declining values has to modify collateral hence the answer is E in D there is no proper use of which
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2013, 00:25
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abhishekkhosla wrote:
hi,

since the non underline part is starting with Verbing participle so it has to modify the subject of the sentence so if you think the declining values has to modify collateral hence the answer is E in D there is no proper use of which



Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2013, 02:53
EducationAisle wrote:
honchos wrote:
Declining is a gerund here, what is verbing participle?


It is not used as a gerund (noun) here; it is used as an "adjective" ("-ing" form of verb, used as an adjective, is called participle).


Hi Ashish,

Please explain why is D incorrect and E correct.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against   [#permalink] 14 Dec 2013, 02:53

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