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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w

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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2011, 00:10
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Question Stats:

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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is

(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is

(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are

(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Question1:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

In E what does the appositive "collateral" really modify - "declining values..." or "farm equipment and land".

Question2:
If I changed (D) to the below

(D) which farmers use as collateral to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Now from the above two which would you choose as the answer?

Cheers
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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2011, 19:27
Quote:
In E what does the appositive "collateral" really modify - "declining values..." or "farm equipment and land"


Collateral is a noun. In the sentence it is part of the noun modifier and modifying "farm equipment and land"

Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers.....

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2011, 23:38
gmatrant wrote:
Question1:
Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

In E what does the appositive "collateral" really modify - "declining values..." or "farm equipment and land".

Question2:
If I changed (D) to the below

(D) which farmers use as collateral to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Now from the above two which would you choose as the answer?

Cheers
Gmatrant


E wins. Collateral modifies "values" hence "are"

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jan 2012, 10:51
Yeah E it is..a noun + noun modifier.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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234. Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

Ques
- Can I say D is incorrect because it is passive construction
- the which in D-is modifying only land or farm equipment and land. :?:

Last edited by ankurgupta03 on 27 Feb 2014, 00:38, edited 1 time in total.
underlined the question

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2012, 21:41
D sounds like the modifier is for 'declining value'. right?

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2012, 21:46
outbackvandy wrote:
D sounds like the modifier is for 'declining value'. right?


Which can modify only the noun preceding

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2012, 23:35
The first part or before the comma is modifying "the collateral". Declining values is the subject of the overall sentence and happens to be plural. Therefore, the verb needs to be plural "are". The answer is E.

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New post 06 Mar 2012, 00:40
mourinhogmat1 wrote:
The first part or before the comma is modifying "the collateral". Declining values is the subject of the overall sentence and happens to be plural. Therefore, the verb needs to be plural "are". The answer is E.


The catch here is between option D and E - both use "are". Please explain the difference

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2012, 00:57
devinawilliam83 wrote:
mourinhogmat1 wrote:
The first part or before the comma is modifying "the collateral". Declining values is the subject of the overall sentence and happens to be plural. Therefore, the verb needs to be plural "are". The answer is E.[/
quote]
The catch here is between option D and E - both use "are". Please explain the difference



Between D and E it's pretty straight forward. "which" is modifying the harvest seasons in D. This is wrong because original intention is to say : declining values = collateral --> used by farmers and NOT harvest season = collateral --> used by farmers.

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2012, 02:40
Hey,

IMO, in most of the questions i have encountered so far an '-ing' modifier at the beginning of the sentence modifies a Noun. In this case, The collateral is the Noun, which the 'Declining values..' modifies.

Also, most of the times the relative pronoun 'which' refers to the preceding noun. But, at times 'which' when preceded by a Noun + prepositional phrase will refer to the Noun.

In this question, 'which' can also refer to the 'Declining values'. But, choice 'E' overrides this ambiguity by using 'the collateral' to be modified by the '-ing' modifier.

Please correct me if am wrong. :)

HTH.
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2012, 03:40
Correct answer is E --the collateral is appositive here modifying farm equipment and land

D -- is quite awkward though don't have Subject Verb Agreement error
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New post 07 Mar 2012, 19:51
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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ENAFEX wrote:
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is


Declining values for farm equipment and land,---------, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring

therefore it should be 'are' not 'is' (Declining values is plural).

correct me if i am wrong.

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New post 15 Mar 2012, 06:02
shadabkhaniet wrote:
ENAFEX wrote:
Modifier question -- B and D out.

Now isnt the answer supposed to be A?
the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is


Declining values for farm equipment and land,---------, is going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring

therefore it should be 'are' not 'is' (Declining values is plural).

correct me if i am wrong.

shadab


You are right. Thanks. Not sure what I was thinking about. May be I got carried away reading only the anwer choices..
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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through
the harvest season, is
going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

(A) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, is
(B) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, is
(C) the collateral which is borrowed against by farmers to get through the harvest season, is
(D) which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are
(E) the collateral against which farmers borrow to get through the harvest season, are

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Between D and E.....

E modifies the whole clause "Declining values for farm equipment and land".....which i think is inappropriate
where as which in D refers to farm equipment and land (used as collateral) ....so this must be correct...

experts please throw some light on this.....

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w [#permalink]

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In this question the placement of commas is very important and it makes life tedious when the question is not underlined. Please underline the wrong part the next time you post a question.:-)

We require a plural are, So A,B, C are out.

In both D and E, I will not say there are modifier errors as in both cases they make clear references. The issue in D is the preposition 'Which', which stays away from the noun collateral and makes it wordy. In E prep against stays close to the noun collateral.

which farmers use as collateral to borrow....
And
the collateral against which farmers borrow....
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New post 17 Mar 2012, 05:54
E is the winner.

D has modifier error as which seems to modify land.
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New post 23 Mar 2012, 09:40
E seems to be the answer in my opinion

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New post 23 Mar 2012, 16:44
E. The question has been discussed in a recent thread.

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Re: Declining values for farm equipment and land, the collateral against w   [#permalink] 23 Mar 2012, 16:44

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