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# Dental caries and gingivitis can be exacerbated not only by

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Dental caries and gingivitis can be exacerbated not only by [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2007, 13:58
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238. Dental caries and gingivitis can be exacerbated not only by the foods patients eat but also by when the patients eat them.

(A) not only by the foods patients eat but also by when the patients eat them

(E) not only by what patients eat but also by when they eat it

*This question has been discussed before. Please explain why the pronouns have correct referents.

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Re: SC1000 #238 Dental ....referents [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2007, 00:08
Himalayan wrote:
bmwhype2 wrote:
238. Dental caries and gingivitis can be exacerbated not only by the foods patients eat but also by when the patients eat them.

(A) not only by the foods patients eat but also by when the patients eat them

(E) not only by what patients eat but also by when they eat it

*This question has been discussed before. Please explain why the pronouns have correct referents.

A. in b it has no referent.

The answer is E for parallelism. It has an implied referent of food. Is it possible that it refers to what?

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09 Jul 2007, 00:11
E. The idiom is not only x but also y.

x and y needs to be parallel.

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09 Jul 2007, 02:34
Initially i thought A, changed my mind to E. Agree with ywilfred.

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09 Jul 2007, 08:16
i know that E is the answer and that it is parallel. I am asking about the concept behind the it referent.

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09 Jul 2007, 14:20
Don't worry about pronoun "it", often time we supress it even though it is gramatically correct to use or not use. If you don't use pronoun at the end it becomes implied. The concept that is really being tested here is correct use of idiom and conciseness of the expression.
Hope this helps

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Target GMAT: 750 Posted: Mon Jul 09, 2007 7:16 am Post subject:

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i know that E is the answer and that it is parallel. I am asking about the concept behind the it referent.
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13 Jul 2007, 11:15
1
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thanks.

I found out the concept.

==================
Syntactic expletives are words that perform a syntactic role but contribute nothing to meaning. Expletive subjects are part of the grammar of many non-pro-drop languages such as English, whose clauses normally require overt provision of subject even when the subject can be pragmatically inferred (for an alternative theory considering expletives like there as a dummy predicates rather than a dummy subject based on the analysis of the copula see Moro 1997 in the list of references cited here). Consider this example:

"It is important that you work hard for the exam."
Following the eighteenth-century conception of pronoun, Bishop Robert Lowth objected that since it is a pronoun, it should have an antecedent. Since it cannot function like that in Latin, Lowth said that the usage was incorrect in English.

Whether or not it is a pronoun here (and linguists today would say that it is one), English is not Latin; and the sentence was and is fully acceptable to native speakers of English and thus was and is grammatical. It has no meaning here; it merely serves as a dummy subject. (It is sometimes called preparatory it or prep it, or a dummy pronoun.)

It is worth noting that Bishop Lowth did not condemn sentences that use there as an expletive, even though it is one in for example:

"There are ten desks here."
The nomenclature used for the constituents of sentences such as this is still a matter of some dispute, but there might be called subject, are copula, and ten desks predicate nominal. Meanwhile here is an adverbial phrase that conveniently reveals the semantic vacuity of there in this example.

There is some disagreement over whether the it in such sentences as

"It is raining now."
are expletives. Whereas it makes no sense to ask what the it refers to in "It is important that you work hard for the exam", some people might say that the dummy it in "It is raining now" refers to the weather (even if the word weather has not previously been mentioned). Thus the it in such sentences is sometimes called expletive, sometimes a weather "it".

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Re: SC1000 #238 Dental ....referents [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2007, 11:53
Quote:
The answer is E for parallelism. It has an implied referent of food. Is it possible that it refers to what?

noted.

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Re: SC1000 #238 Dental ....referents [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2007, 15:44
E should be the answer, see below for explanation

bmwhype2 wrote:
Dental caries and gingivitis can be exacerbated not only by what patients eat but also by when they eat it ---clause in Red in a Noun clause; "It" is referring to this clause

You can test whether "it" refers to "what" or "what" clause.
Incorrect:The stuff can be exacerbated not only by blah blah patients eat but also by when they eat it
Correct:The stuff can be exacerbated not only by blah blah but also by when they eat it

Last edited by seofah on 14 Jul 2007, 10:22, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: SC1000 #238 Dental ....referents [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2007, 23:08
botirvoy wrote:
E should be the answer, see below for explanation

bmwhype2 wrote:
Dental caries and gingivitis can be exacerbated not only by what patients eat but also by when they eat it ---clause in Red in a Noun clause; "It" is referring to this clause

You can test whether "it" refers to "what" or "what" clause.
Incorrect:The stuff can be exacerbated not only by blah blah patients eat but also by when they eat it
Correct:The stuff can be exacerbated not only by blah blah but also by when they eat it

botirvoy, could you please explain your reasoning. I didn't get the blah blah..
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Re: SC1000 #238 Dental ....referents [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2007, 05:12
shoonya wrote:
botirvoy wrote:
E should be the answer, see below for explanation

bmwhype2 wrote:
Dental caries and gingivitis can be exacerbated not only by what patients eat but also by when they eat it ---clause in Red in a Noun clause; "It" is referring to this clause

You can test whether "it" refers to "what" or "what" clause.
Incorrect:The stuff can be exacerbated not only by blah blah patients eat but also by when they eat it
Correct:The stuff can be exacerbated not only by blah blah but also by when they eat it

botirvoy, could you please explain your reasoning. I didn't get the blah blah..

I was trying to show what does "it" exactly refer to. "it" refers to "what patients eat", NOT "what"; examples I gave try to test this. You can change "blah blah" to a noun or pronoun. Obviously, red word does not fit into the sentence and therefore the sentence is incorrect. If "it" would refer to "what" only, then Incorrect sentence would make sense

I hope i could make a point. Let me know if you still need clarification

Last edited by seofah on 14 Jul 2007, 10:23, edited 1 time in total.

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14 Jul 2007, 09:43
makes sense. Thanks for taking the pain to explain.
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Re: SC1000 #238 Dental ....referents [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2007, 12:54
botirvoy wrote:
shoonya wrote:
botirvoy wrote:
E should be the answer, see below for explanation

bmwhype2 wrote:
Dental caries and gingivitis can be exacerbated not only by what patients eat but also by when they eat it ---clause in Red in a Noun clause; "It" is referring to this clause

You can test whether "it" refers to "what" or "what" clause.
Incorrect:The stuff can be exacerbated not only by blah blah patients eat but also by when they eat it
Correct:The stuff can be exacerbated not only by blah blah but also by when they eat it

botirvoy, could you please explain your reasoning. I didn't get the blah blah..

I was trying to show what does "it" exactly refer to. "it" refers to "what patients eat", NOT "what"; examples I gave try to test this. You can change "blah blah" to a noun or pronoun. Obviously, red word does not fit into the sentence and therefore the sentence is incorrect. If "it" would refer to "what" only, then Incorrect sentence would make sense

I hope i could make a point. Let me know if you still need clarification

i have no idea what you are talking about.

but i figured out why A is wrong. (parallelism error)

not only by what patients eat
but also when they eat it

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09 Sep 2007, 12:55
In addition, it cannot refer to "what patients eat." "It" is referring to what/food.

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Re: SC1000 #238 Dental ....referents [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2007, 23:33
bmwhype2 wrote:
238. Dental caries and gingivitis can be exacerbated not only by the foods patients eat but also by when the patients eat them.

(A) not only by the foods patients eat but also by when the patients eat them

(E) not only by what patients eat but also by when they eat it

*This question has been discussed before. Please explain why the pronouns have correct referents.

I like A.

E... eat it. eat what? it doesnt have a clear referent. I don't think E is correct.

Arghhh, forgot bout the idiom

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Re: SC1000 #238 Dental ....referents [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2008, 07:22
Idiom can be taken in consideration

Plus food is implied isnt it?

Can someone eat something other thn food?

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Re: SC1000 #238 Dental ....referents [#permalink]

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13 May 2009, 16:33
bump, this is a good question. I'm still skeptical about E.

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Re: SC1000 #238 Dental ....referents   [#permalink] 13 May 2009, 16:33
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