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# Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode

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Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2014, 02:21
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Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in modern sports, many sportsmen and women at all levels of sport swear by superstitions or elaborate event rituals to enhance their game. Irrational as it may sound, these superstitions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to.

Which of the following would most help evaluate the conclusion that superstition clearly helps sportspersons?
A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also have superstitions
B) Whether there is empirical proof that superstition boosts the performance of sportspersons
C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do
D) Whether superstition helps boost an individual’s self belief dramatically
E) Whether all successful sportspersons across the world have some superstition

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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2014, 03:11
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1
To understand more about reasoning that might help understand why C is not the correct answer:

Say there is a condition : When X happens, Y happens: X----> Y

This can be translated to: Whenever one follows superstitions they do well because of a performance boost.

Now, when Y does not happen we can clearly say that X did not happen, because it is a given that whenever X happens, Y has to happen. IF X had happened, Y would definitely happen.Now, Y is not there, we can say X did not happen.

BUT what if Y happened, can we say X happened? NO. Y could have also been caused by Z.

For option C - Whenever superstitions(X) are not there, can a sportsperson be successful (Y) - We can't evaluate this. There could be another factor Z involved.

Hope this helps. This is definitely a top of the league CR question!
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2014, 02:53
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IMO A

Really good question. Here, we are trying to find whether superstition clearly helps sportspersons i.e. a role played by superstitions for sportspersons in boosting performance.

Which of the following would most help evaluate the conclusion that superstition clearly helps sportspersons?
A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also have superstitions. Hold on as it says that even though sportspersons have superstitions, they are not successful. This clearly says that something else,but not superstition, plays a role in boosting performance. If we yes then it clearly weakens our argument and if no then it strengthens role of superstitions.
B) Whether there is empirical proof that superstition boosts the performance of sportspersons. Incorrect. If yes then even if there is an empirical proof, it doesn't explain why only 'almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to' . i.e. Not all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstitions. Therefore it doesn't really strengthen our argument.
C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do. Incorrect. This reverses our causalty. Classic case of wrong one. Moreover, we are not concerned with people not having any superstitions and therefore can't confirm role of superstition.
D) Whether superstition helps boost an individual’s self belief dramatically. Incorrect. We are not concerned if superstition helps boost an individual’s self belief dramatically. Too strong and broad as it generalizes to individuals.
E) Whether all successful sportspersons across the world have some superstition. Incorrect. A yes/no answer to this doesn't tell us if indeed a role is played by superstitions for sportspersons.

Thus, we have A as our answer. Source?
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2014, 03:00
2
Hi,

I choose C as well because in C : C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do

If yes , then the argument is not acceptable as not all the top sportspersons across the world need some superstition in order to be successful

If not, then the argument is acceptable as all the top sportsperons need some supersitition in order to be successful.

I eliminate A : A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also have superstitions because if yes, then the argument is still acceptable because the scope of the argument is about " top sportsperon" or " successful sportsperson " not about "sportsperons who are not successful"

What is the source of this question ?

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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2014, 03:04
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anindame wrote:
Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in modern sports, many sportsmen and women at all levels of sport swear by superstitions or elaborate event rituals to enhance their game. Irrational as it may sound, these superstitions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to.

Which of the following would most help evaluate the conclusion that superstition clearly helps sportspersons?
A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also have superstitions
B) Whether there is empirical proof that superstition boosts the performance of sportspersons
C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do
D) Whether superstition helps boost an individual’s self belief dramatically
E) Whether all successful sportspersons across the world have some superstition

The argument says that superstitions are clearly a performance boost. Now of the given options, the correct one when plugged with extreme answers would either weaken or strengthen the claim strongly.

A: Since superstitions boost performance - If we answer YES to A then it weakens the arguments because clearly even when these sportspersons followed superstitions they were not able to be as successful as some of the others. IF the answer is NO then it strengthens the argument's claim because it can be argued that since these sportspersons did not follow superstitions they were at a disadvantage as compared to those tho did.

Clearly, a yes and no answer to option A has a weakening or strengthening impact on the question. These type of options in such questions are always correct.

B: Answer Yes or NO to B does not strengthen or weaken the argument.

C: If the answer to C is yes then that just means that those who do not follow superstitions must be doing something more to make them successful. It does not negate or support the fact that superstitions might boost performance. If the answer is NO, it might weaken the argument but we need an option which can both strengthen and weaken the argument when answered with extreme options.

D. The argument does not talk about self belief in any way; this choice is out of scope since it will require one to add more points to support the fact the self belief and performance might be related.

E. If the answer is yes, it does not strengthen the argument that superstitions give a performance boost. IF the answer is NO then it is still quite possible for a sportsperson to be successful even without a performance boost from superstitions. The answers to this question do not strengthen or weaken the argument.

The argument says that: "these superstitions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to." Thus it is hinged on the assumption that performance boost from superstitions is the only factor that helps sportspersons do better.
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2014, 03:44
1
Thanks a lot! It really helped. Source - Question Bank by carcass.
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2014, 12:19
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rashmi1 wrote:

Is it a strengthening or weakning question?

It looks that "A" is weakning the argument whereas the question asks for the strengthening the argument.

This is an evaluate argument question. An option that either strengthens or weakens (in other words affects) the argument is the correct answer.
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2014, 07:33
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Question: The passage states "these superstitions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to."

The reason why I didn't choose (A) was as follows:

Because a sportsperson who are not as successful may also have superstitions. Yet, they may be mediocre due to this superstition, meaning they would have been even worse w/o their superstitions. (Without a player's rabbit foot for instance, he/she would be even worse.) Then examining a mediocre player wiht a superstition doesn't provide much info.

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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2016, 22:50
1
Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in modern sports, many sportsmen and women at all levels of sport swear by superstitions or elaborate event rituals to enhance their game. Irrational as it may sound, these superstitions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to.

Superstition boost performance.
Premise 1> all top sportsperson across the world have some superstition.

Assumption here is : it is the "superstition " that is making them "ON TOP". So there is some connection between superstition and success.

Which of the following would most help evaluate the conclusion that superstition clearly helps sportspersons?
A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also have superstitions :-
Technically if there is superstition, than they had to be successful. A prove it otherwise. Some sportsmen have superstition but still they are not sucessful. THat means there is some other others factor in play. ANd we can't say that it's superstition that is making them sucessful.

A correct

C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do :- "almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to." so we already know that there are some sportsman who are successful don't have superstition. So evaluating this won't be of much help.
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2014, 02:46
Can someone tell me why it's not C?
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2014, 03:13
I feel that we are trying to understand and evaluate the role of superstitions for sportspersons and therefore our scope will only have sportspersons having superstitions and not people without any superstitions i.e. a different bucket altogether. If people with no superstitions are successful then we can't confirm clearly the role played superstitions among sportspersons. We are not concerned what else plays role in those sportpersons' performance and eventually success.

I too was tempted by the wording but then after thinking over it, I eliminated C.

Rock750 wrote:
Hi,

I choose C as well because in C : C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do

If yes , then the argument is not acceptable as not all the top sportspersons across the world need some superstition in order to be successful

If not, then the argument is acceptable as all the top sportsperons need some supersitition in order to be successful.

I eliminate A : A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also have superstitions because if yes, then the argument is still acceptable because the scope of the argument is about " top sportsperon" or " successful sportsperson " not about "sportsperons who are not successful"

What is the source of this question ?

Thanks
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2014, 18:10
mba1382 wrote:
IMO A

Really good question. Here, we are trying to find whether superstition clearly helps sportspersons i.e. a role played by superstitions for sportspersons in boosting performance.

Which of the following would most help evaluate the conclusion that superstition clearly helps sportspersons?
A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also have superstitions. Hold on as it says that even though sportspersons have superstitions, they are not successful. This clearly says that something else,but not superstition, plays a role in boosting performance. If we yes then it clearly weakens our argument and if no then it strengthens role of superstitions.
B) Whether there is empirical proof that superstition boosts the performance of sportspersons. Incorrect. If yes then even if there is an empirical proof, it doesn't explain why only 'almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to' . i.e. Not all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstitions. Therefore it doesn't really strengthen our argument.
C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do. Incorrect. This reverses our causalty. Classic case of wrong one. Moreover, we are not concerned with people not having any superstitions and therefore can't confirm role of superstition.
D) Whether superstition helps boost an individual’s self belief dramatically. Incorrect. We are not concerned if superstition helps boost an individual’s self belief dramatically. Too strong and broad as it generalizes to individuals.
E) Whether all successful sportspersons across the world have some superstition. Incorrect. A yes/no answer to this doesn't tell us if indeed a role is played by superstitions for sportspersons.

Thus, we have A as our answer. Source?

Is it a strengthening or weakning question?

It looks that "A" is weakning the argument whereas the question asks for the strengthening the argument.
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2014, 20:28
junwlee wrote:
Question: The passage states "these superstitions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to."

The reason why I didn't choose (A) was as follows:

Because a sportsperson who are not as successful may also have superstitions. Yet, they may be mediocre due to this superstition, meaning they would have been even worse w/o their superstitions. (Without a player's rabbit foot for instance, he/she would be even worse.) Then examining a mediocre player wiht a superstition doesn't provide much info.

I thought the same way. Enhanced performance doesn't translate into being successful. I might have a better performance than my usual one but that doesn't necessarily mean that i have to be successful. With superstitious belief i might end up loosing with a lesser margin than i would generally but that in no way makes me a successful sportsperson. Can experts please comment on this?
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2014, 06:58
Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in modern sports, many sportsmen and women at all levels of sport swear by superstitions or elaborate event rituals to enhance their game. Irrational as it may sound, these superstitions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to.

Which of the following would most help evaluate the conclusion that superstition clearly helps sports persons?

Conclusion : Superstitions boost performance
Premise : All the TOP sport persons believe in superstitions

A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also have superstitions
If the Bottom Sports persons also have superstitions -> Yes rejects the argument -> No supports the argument -> Correct

B) Whether there is empirical proof that superstition boosts the performance of sportspersons
-> We are not concerned how Superstitions helps sport persons -> Incorrect

C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do
As per premise : Top Sports persons have superstitions.
Middle ranking sports persons might also have superstitions.
In this option, ones who have superstitions might be from middle ranking athletes.
Hence incorrect

D) Whether superstition helps boost an individual’s self belief dramatically
-> We are not talking how superstitions help -> Incorrect

E) Whether all successful sportspersons across the world have some superstition
Completely OFS
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2014, 20:57
anindame wrote:
Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in modern sports, many sportsmen and women at all levels of sport swear by superstitions or elaborate event rituals to enhance their game. Irrational as it may sound, these superstitions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to.

Which of the following would most help evaluate the conclusion that superstition clearly helps sportspersons?
A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also have superstitions
B) Whether there is empirical proof that superstition boosts the performance of sportspersons
C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do
D) Whether superstition helps boost an individual’s self belief dramatically
E) Whether all successful sportspersons across the world have some superstition

Lets replace the word superstition with regular training at all places in this question and check if the OA still holds true

Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in modern sports, many sportsmen and women at all levels of sport swear by regular training to enhance their game. Irrational as it may sound, these regular training sessions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some regular training regimen that they always adhere to.

Which of the following would most help evaluate the conclusion that regular training clearly helps sportspersons?

A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also train regularly
If the answer is Yes, it does not weaken/strengthen the argument. Most sportspersons train regularly but that doesn't guarantee an Olympic gold medal. So even though the not so successful sportsperson train as regularly, as the more successful athletes, they are not as successful because there are others factors involved. But that doesn't mean regular training does not boost performance.
If the answer is No, it still does not weaken/strengthen the argument. As there can be other factors besides regular training that makes a top sportsperson tick.
This option proves nothing really.

B) Whether there is empirical proof that regular training boosts the performance of sportspersons
Now if there is an empirical proof that regular training boosts the performance of sportspersons then we can definitively say that the argument is correct.

C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any regular training are also as successful as the ones who do
Yes : Doesn't weaken/strengthen the argument. The sportsperson in question could be a born athlete and immensely talented than the ones who need regular training.
No: Same as A, there can be other factors involved. So doesn't weaken/strengthen.

D) Whether regular training helps boost an individual’s self belief dramatically
Out of scope
E) Whether all successful sportspersons across the world have regular training
Out of scope

Based on this I believe B is a better option than A. Please let me know if my reasoning is wrong.
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2017, 01:36
Conclusion: Superstitions -> boosts performance of SPORTSPERSON

A: CORRECT If Yes, it weakens conclusion( bcoz unsuccessful ppl also have superstitions ); if NO, it strengthens conclusion

B. PASSAGE ALREADY SAYS that IRRATIONAL AS IT MAY SOUND.....which means we don't care about LOGIC AND SCIENTIFIC PROOFS...we are making the conclusion despite any logic/proof against it.

C.THIS is ABOUT ppl WHO DONT HAVE SUPERSTITIONS......then, how can we determine role of superstition.......even if you are successful, it has to be attributed to something else

D: Boosting individual's self-belief does not mean boosting performance. Also, we care about sportspersons only.

E: If YES, strengthens. But If NO, it does not weaken because if NOT ALL successful ppl have some superstitions means that atleast 1 successful person does not have some superstitions....we cannot weaken based on just 1 successful person who does not have superstition.

P.S. Sorry about my writing style here. Copying from my personal notes. Thought could be of help to someone else.
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Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 02 Nov 2017, 20:41
Super ---> Success

Superstition here is sufficient condition, but not a necessary one. So, even if sports person who don’t have any superstitions aren't successful, it doesn't break the argument. What will break the argument - even if superstition isn't present, sports person is successful.

A - ~Success ----> ~Super & ~Sucess --->Super
Supports and Weakens the argument

D - ~Super ---> Sucess (No effect)
~Super ---->~Sucess (Supports)
So just support, can't weaken the argument.

Also intuitively, if someone says superstition leads to success. You normally reply "look superstition sometimes don't lead to success (A)", so watch out on your logic.

Option A- People who drink milk are not growing - breaks.
Option D- People are not drinking milk, then also growing. This doesn't break the argument, as there could be n number of ways to boost to growth. Milk is one reliable one. (sufficient one)

Originally posted by ajit_223 on 15 Jul 2017, 04:36.
Last edited by ajit_223 on 02 Nov 2017, 20:41, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2017, 02:01
Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in modern sports, many sportsmen and women at all levels of sport swear by superstitions or elaborate event rituals to enhance their game. Irrational as it may sound, these superstitions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to.

Which of the following would most help evaluate the conclusion that superstition clearly helps sportspersons?

A) Whether sportspersons who are not as successful also have superstitions

C) Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do

all the top sportsperson across the world have superstition :- conclusion => it is because of superstition.
How will prove that this is wrong.
if someone who are superstitious but still not successful that will prove that this is not because of superstition and that's what A is doing.

Whether sportsperson who don’t have any superstitions are also as successful as the ones who do => "PEOPLE WHO DON'T HAVE SUPERSTITION" is out of scope for this question.

We have to concentrate upon PEOPLE WHO HAVE SUPERSTITION.
so A.
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Re: Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2017, 05:42
I fell for C.

But now i see, why A is correct, it is test of sufficient condition.

if we want to test for sufficiency for if A (causes)-> B, we will test its contrapositive, if !B -> !A, if true, then A has indeed caused B, if false, something else is causing B and not A.

Question is testing this concept out.

if (superstitious beliefs(A) -> causes success (B)
how do we test for sufficiency?
by checking its contrapositive, if !B (not success) -> !A (superstitious beliefs) ? putting in formal words, do unsuccessful people have superstitious beliefs? - Choice (A) exactly tests this condition.

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Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2018, 23:32
gauravkaushik8591 wrote:
junwlee wrote:
Question: The passage states "these superstitions clearly boost performance because almost all the top sportspersons across the world have some superstition or the other that they always adhere to."

The reason why I didn't choose (A) was as follows:

Because a sportsperson who are not as successful may also have superstitions. Yet, they may be mediocre due to this superstition, meaning they would have been even worse w/o their superstitions. (Without a player's rabbit foot for instance, he/she would be even worse.) Then examining a mediocre player wiht a superstition doesn't provide much info.

I thought the same way. Enhanced performance doesn't translate into being successful. I might have a better performance than my usual one but that doesn't necessarily mean that i have to be successful. With superstitious belief i might end up loosing with a lesser margin than i would generally but that in no way makes me a successful sportsperson. Can experts please comment on this?

I also have same reasoning for rejecting A: @experts please shed some light on this
Despite all the science and massive budgets involved in mode   [#permalink] 31 Jul 2018, 23:32

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