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# Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because

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Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2013, 05:26
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45% (01:19) correct 55% (00:43) wrong based on 110

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Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because they are so rare: very rich kimberlite pipes, the routes through which diamonds rise, may contain only three carats of diamonds per ton of kimberlite. Kimberlite begins as magma in Earth’s mantle (the layer between the crust and the core). As the magma smashes through layers of rock, it rips out debris, creating a mix of liquid and solid material. Some of the solid material it brings up may come from a so-called diamond-stability field, where conditions of pressure and temperature are conducive to the formation of diamonds. If diamonds are to survive, though, they must shoot toward Earth’s surface quickly. Otherwise, they revert to graphite or burn. Explorers seeking diamonds look for specks of “indicator minerals” peculiar to the mantle but carried up in greater quantities than diamonds and eroded out of kimberlite pipes into the surrounding land. The standard ones are garnets, chromites, and ilmenites. One can spend years searching for indicators and tracing them back to the pipes that are their source; however, 90 percent of kimberlite pipes found this way are barren of diamonds, and the rest are usually too sparse to mine.

In the 1970’s the process of locating profitable pipes was refined by focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures of indicator minerals found in diamond-rich pipes as opposed to those found in barren pipes. For example, G10 garnets, a type of garnet typically found in diamond-rich pipes, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes. Geochemists John Gurney showed that garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field; more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle. Gurney also found that though ilmenites did not form in the diamond-stability field, there was a link useful for prospectors: when the iron in ilmenite was highly oxidized, its source pipe rarely contained any diamonds. He reasoned that iron took on more or less oxygen in response to conditions in the kimberlitic magma itself—mainly in response to heat and the available oxygen. When iron became highly oxidized, so did diamonds; that is, they vaporized into carbon dioxide.
The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a difference between G10 garnet and other versions of garnet EXCEPT
(A)level of oxidation
(B)commonness of occurrence
(C)chemical signature
(D)place of formation
(E)appearance in conjunction with diamond

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

The passage suggests that the presence of G10 garnet in a kimberlite pipe indicates that
(A)the pipe in which the garnet is found has a 90% chance of containing diamonds
(B)the levels of calcium and chrome in the pipe are conducive to diamond formation
(C)the pipe passed through a diamond-stability field and thus may contain diamonds
(D)any diamonds the pipe contains would not have come from the diamond-stability field
(E)the pipe's temperature was so high that it oxidized any diamonds the pipe might have contained

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

According to the passage, Gurney refined the use of ilmenites in prospecting for diamonds in which of the following ways?
(A)He found that ilmenites are brought up from the mantle by kimberlite pipes and erode out into the surrounding land in greater quantities than diamonds.
(B)He found that since ilmenites do not form in the diamond-stability field, their presence indicates the absence of diamonds.
(C)He showed that highly oxidized iron content in ilmenites indicates a low survival rate for diamonds.
(D)He found that when the iron in ilmenites is highly oxidized, conditions in the magma were probably conducive to the formation of diamonds.
(E)He showed that ilmenites take on more or less oxygen in the kimberlite pipe depending on the concentration of diamonds

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
If you have any questions
New!
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2013, 05:26
Can anyone explain answer for the second
question?
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2013, 08:34
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roopika2990 wrote:
Can anyone explain answer for the second
question?

I just selected sentences that can help to detect the differences between the 2 types of garnet.

(A)level of oxidation : the passage mentioned the level of occidation as a peculiarity of iron solely.

(B)commonness of occurrence -> Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because they are so rare ... garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field; more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle

(C)chemical signature -> by focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures .... For example, G10 garnets, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes

(D)place of formation -> more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle

(E)appearance in conjunction with diamond -> garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field

Hope it helps !
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2013, 16:23
The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds

Why answer is E and not B ?
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2013, 23:38
Even have doubts regarding first question. I elminated E because of a method, there are more than one methods discussed, I found B better because formation and reason for scarcity is discussed but thats not central idea so eliminated that too. at last I marked D because the first 3 lines introduce indicator minerals discussed later and second para is all about their characteristics. more thoughts plz
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2013, 05:41
Alpach wrote:
roopika2990 wrote:
Can anyone explain answer for the second
question?

I just selected sentences that can help to detect the differences between the 2 types of garnet.

(A)level of oxidation : the passage mentioned the level of occidation as a peculiarity of iron solely.

(B)commonness of occurrence -> Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because they are so rare ... garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field; more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle

(C)chemical signature -> by focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures .... For example, G10 garnets, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes

(D)place of formation -> more commonly found versions came from elsewhere in the mantle

(E)appearance in conjunction with diamond -> garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field

Hope it helps !

Thanks for explanation, Alpach ..
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2013, 01:07
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pankajjindal25 wrote:
The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds

Why answer is E and not B ?

There is always a difference between the scope of a passage and the reason for writing a certain passage.
B covers everything in the passage, but what it not covers is the intention of the author as to why he/she wrote the passage. Thereby B is the scope and e is the primary purpose of the passage.
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2015, 13:41
Can someone please explain why B is wrong on the fourth question?
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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02 May 2015, 21:33
1
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pankajjindal25 wrote:
The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds

Why answer is E and not B ?

B says: "explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity".

There is actually no where in the passage that "formation of diamonds" has been explored. The only reference of diamond formation is in regards to "diamond-stability field" (where conditions of pressure and temperature are conducive to the formation of diamonds).

The passage is about kimberlite pipes, how most of them are barren and how some techniques (differences between the chemical signatures of indicator minerals in kimberlite pipes) can help to increase the "hit ratio".
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Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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02 May 2015, 21:42
nick2014 wrote:
Can someone please explain why B is wrong on the fourth question?

I believe you are referring to the following: He found that since ilmenites do not form in the diamond-stability field, their presence indicates the absence of diamonds.

"ilmenites" is actually an "indicator mineral" so the presence "ilmenites" cannot mean absence of diamonds. As per the passage, the presence of "oxidized" ilmenites would most probably mean absence of diamonds. Look at the following sentence from the passage:

when the iron in ilmenite was highly oxidized, its source pipe rarely contained any diamonds.
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2015, 21:26
Total time 8 min, all correct.
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Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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21 Feb 2016, 14:02
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh ,

Can you please debrief Q1 (Primary purpose) and in Q2 where can we find appearance in conjunction with diamond.

As mentioned by one of GMAT aspirant that -->

(E) appearance in conjunction with diamond -> garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field
Is he correct..??

Actually I am not convinced with it because it talks about composition and its not at all related with APPEARANCE...

Marcab

As you said-
There is always a difference between the scope of a passage and the reason for writing a certain passage.

Can you please shed more light on it. How could we make out the reason behind writing the passage.
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2016, 06:31
PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh ,

Can you please debrief Q1 (Primary purpose) and in Q2 where can we find appearance in conjunction with diamond.

As mentioned by one of GMAT aspirant that -->

(E) appearance in conjunction with diamond -> garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field
Is he correct..??

Actually I am not convinced with it because it talks about composition and its not at all related with APPEARANCE...

Marcab

As you said-
There is always a difference between the scope of a passage and the reason for writing a certain passage.

Can you please shed more light on it. How could we make out the reason behind writing the passage.

Dear Experts,

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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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21 May 2016, 09:24
PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh ,

Can you please debrief Q1 (Primary purpose) and in Q2 where can we find appearance in conjunction with diamond.

As mentioned by one of GMAT aspirant that -->

(E) appearance in conjunction with diamond -> garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field
Is he correct..??

Actually I am not convinced with it because it talks about composition and its not at all related with APPEARANCE...

Marcab

As you said-
There is always a difference between the scope of a passage and the reason for writing a certain passage.

Can you please shed more light on it. How could we make out the reason behind writing the passage.

I do share the same point as pointed out by PrakharGMAT, we can still somehow try to map Level of Oxidation in regards to G10 & other versions, but i am unable to find anything in relation with APPEARANCE IN CONJUCTION WITH DIAMOND
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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27 May 2016, 03:01
Took me 8'15'' to complete, all are fine.
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Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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27 May 2016, 03:35
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PrakharGMAT, smartguy595, RDhin - may I offer my understanding on these issues?

Q1- The primary purpose of the passage is to

Before going to answer the question, my quick summary to the passage:

Diamonds are rare & hard to detect --> only through "kimberlite pipes" can have diamond --> prev: several ineffective ways to decide which kimberlite pipes have good potential of containing diamond --> later: Gurney's method is more effective.

(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals - incorrect, if any the passage actual supports Gurney's method
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity - a little bit on the formation of diamond in the first passage, but the rest are all about how to identify rich diamond "kimberlite pipes". Moreover, passage only said diamon are rare - doesn't say anything about why they're rare --> incorrect!
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds -> very little discuss if any, the important of something at best should be compare with some other similar things, here, I don't see any of other similar thing, diamond is only through "kimberlite pipes" --> so, incorrect!
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions --> nope
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds --> yep, this could be one, 1st passage does talk about Explorers seeking diamonds look for specks of “indicator minerals” and then elaborates more about it, the 2nd passage explore another more effective way to seek diamond in kimberlite pipes --> Correct!

Q2. Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a difference between G10 garnet and other versions of garnet EXCEPT

(A)level of oxidation
(B)commonness of occurrence
(C)chemical signature
(D)place of formation
(E)appearance in conjunction with diamond

This is a tough & tricky one, I need to infer some of the information from the passage:

First, take a look at the 1st passage

“indicator minerals” peculiar to the mantle but carried up in greater quantities than diamonds and eroded out of kimberlite pipes into the surrounding land. The standard ones are garnets, chromites, and ilmenites.

--> so, I can infer that standard characteristic of a possible diamond mine must include garnets
Therefore, there is a conjunction (or good probability of appear together) between garnets & diamond
--> Hence, (E) is out

Second, take a look at the 2nd passage again:

focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures of indicator minerals. --> so (C) is out

garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field - it talked about a place of formation (diamond-stability field) --> so (D) is out

G10 garnets, a type of garnet typically found in diamond-rich pipes, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes.
- there is an occurrence of garnets in difference pipes but some are more of Ca & Cr than other, could we hence infer that it's talking about how often you can find a type of garnets in different pipes --> so it does talk about commonness of occurrence, however, not too clear --> leave it to 50/50 chance.

So, we only left with A & B!

Read further, the rest of the passage only talk about iron and oxidation, nothing mention about garnets.

So, in all, (A) is more persuasive than B --> choose correct answer A
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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2016, 04:41
Linhbiz wrote:
PrakharGMAT, smartguy595, RDhin - may I offer my understanding on these issues?

Q1- The primary purpose of the passage is to

Before going to answer the question, my quick summary to the passage:

Diamonds are rare & hard to detect --> only through "kimberlite pipes" can have diamond --> prev: several ineffective ways to decide which kimberlite pipes have good potential of containing diamond --> later: Gurney's method is more effective.

(A)discuss an objection to Gurney's theories about the uses of indicator minerals - incorrect, if any the passage actual supports Gurney's method
(B)explore the formation of diamonds and the reasons for their scarcity - a little bit on the formation of diamond in the first passage, but the rest are all about how to identify rich diamond "kimberlite pipes". Moreover, passage only said diamon are rare - doesn't say anything about why they're rare --> incorrect!
(C)analyze the importance of kimberlite pipes in the formation of diamonds -> very little discuss if any, the important of something at best should be compare with some other similar things, here, I don't see any of other similar thing, diamond is only through "kimberlite pipes" --> so, incorrect!
(D)define the characteristics of indicator minerals under differing conditions --> nope
(E)explain a method of determining whether kimberlite pipes are likely to contain diamonds --> yep, this could be one, 1st passage does talk about Explorers seeking diamonds look for specks of “indicator minerals” and then elaborates more about it, the 2nd passage explore another more effective way to seek diamond in kimberlite pipes --> Correct!

Q2. Each of the following is mentioned in the passage as a difference between G10 garnet and other versions of garnet EXCEPT

(A)level of oxidation
(B)commonness of occurrence
(C)chemical signature
(D)place of formation
(E)appearance in conjunction with diamond

This is a tough & tricky one, I need to infer some of the information from the passage:

First, take a look at the 1st passage

“indicator minerals” peculiar to the mantle but carried up in greater quantities than diamonds and eroded out of kimberlite pipes into the surrounding land. The standard ones are garnets, chromites, and ilmenites.

--> so, I can infer that standard characteristic of a possible diamond mine must include garnets
Therefore, there is a conjunction (or good probability of appear together) between garnets & diamond
--> Hence, (E) is out

Second, take a look at the 2nd passage again:

focusing on the subtle differences between the chemical signatures of indicator minerals. --> so (C) is out

garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field - it talked about a place of formation (diamond-stability field) --> so (D) is out

G10 garnets, a type of garnet typically found in diamond-rich pipes, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes.
- there is an occurrence of garnets in difference pipes but some are more of Ca & Cr than other, could we hence infer that it's talking about how often you can find a type of garnets in different pipes --> so it does talk about commonness of occurrence, however, not too clear --> leave it to 50/50 chance.

So, we only left with A & B!

Read further, the rest of the passage only talk about iron and oxidation, nothing mention about garnets.

So, in all, (A) is more persuasive than B --> choose correct answer A

Thanks Linhbiz for the explanation
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Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2016, 05:41
In question 3, I was doubting between options B and C.

The passage suggests that the presence of G10 garnet in a kimberlite pipe indicates that:

B) the levels of calcium and chrome in the pipe are conducive to diamond formation
I discarded this option because the levels of calcium and chrome do not lead to diamond formation. They are rather a signal of diamond formation.

C) the pipe passed through a diamond-stability field and thus may contain diamonds
Support for this option:
"For example, G10 garnets, a type of garnet typically found in diamond-rich pipes, are lower in calcium and higher in chrome than garnets from barren pipes. Geochemists John Gurney showed that
garnets with this composition were formed only in the diamond-stability field;..."

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Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because [#permalink]

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01 May 2017, 00:16
Nice small passage to practise...
Re: Diamonds are almost impossible to detect directly because   [#permalink] 01 May 2017, 00:16
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