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# Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating

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Joined: 21 Jan 2007
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Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 26 Nov 2019, 05:53
5
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5% (low)

Question Stats:

91% (00:56) correct 9% (01:15) wrong based on 2581 sessions

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Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate genetic predispositions toward certain diseases.

(A) not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate

(B) do damage by themselves but also are aggravating to

(C) are damaging by themselves but also are aggravating

(D) not only do damage by themselves, they are also aggravating to

(E) are doing damage by themselves, and they are also aggravating

Originally posted by bmwhype2 on 13 Jul 2007, 14:11.
Last edited by Bunuel on 26 Nov 2019, 05:53, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2013, 16:10
5
4
be carefull my friends.

not only...but also is used to show the in-the-same- direction content between 2 clauses.

however, "but also" can be used ALONE to show contrast and means "but"

gmatprep presents a question in which "but also " is used ALONE to test whether we know the contrast.

in this question, the meaning is same-direction content between 2 clauses, so, the couple "not only...but also" is used

this is called meaning based analysis which assumes that the wrong answer choice is grammatical and needs to be proved wrong in meaning.

this means "but also" in b and c are grammatical but wrong in meaning.
if you think that "but also" in b and c are wrong because "not only" dose not go with them, you are wrong because "but also" can be used without "not only"

that is my thinking.
##### General Discussion
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Re: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating  [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2016, 00:06
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gmatlbs wrote:
please explain the parallelism here..."...cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption....".

Generally, whenever a noun form exists for an action , that noun form is preferred to the -ing form of that action.

Here, alcohol consumption is preferred over consuming of alcohol

Coming to the parallelism aspect , the parallelism rules say the following are parallel
1) action nouns || to action nouns ( consumption here)
2) nouns || to complex gerunds (verb-ing OF <something>) --> notice the presence of "of <something>"
2) verb-ing (simple gerund) || to verb-ing (simple gerund)

Going by the rule - I see what you're saying. it's difficult to explain the parallelism by these rules.
But, going by the construction of this sentence, it is clear to see that smoking , eating and consumption are all unambiguously positioned as nouns . (considering verb-ing can be modifiers as well) ,

so I am guessing GMAC took the liberty to position all the nouns parallel (smoking, eating, and consumption) to avoid the awkwardness of a construction like below.

smoking of cigarettes, eating of rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption

this might be the only other possible construction to fit the rule, because smoking and eating do not have a proper noun form.

my takeaway would be that we should keep an eye on the role of verb-ing and if it's unambiguously a noun, it can be presented parallel to action nouns. just noticed that this question is repeated in OG16 (Q87) , verbatim, without eliminating the question. so GMAC believes this a valid construction. the rule is probably hard for modifier forms and soft on noun forms .

A new learning today, after having recently learnt about how past participle forms can be parallel to present participle forms - from the famous fungus question .
thanks for asking this Q. do drop in another post if you notice similar construction in other Qs.
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Re: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating  [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2016, 00:40
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The general observation is that GMAC never comes out and says that this is the rule or that is the rule. Only others interpret them as per their own perceptions. The problem is thicker when, such concepts are tested in the underlined portion. Then we have to look the proclaimed answer choices to expound the acceptance of the diction or the style. However, except for academic purposes, worrying about something that is not underlined or even cultivating that habit will be a strain on the resources, especially in the hall. So, let us take that as far //ism is concerned, that the combination of gerund and an action noun is perfectly ok in GMAT, if I may add including in underlined portion. I hardly remember having seen any GMAT question wherein such a distinction has been used to reject an answer
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Re: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2011, 18:58
1
A. Use of Not only---- But also...
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Re: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2016, 23:34
please explain the parallelism here..."...cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption....".
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Re: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2017, 10:08
Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate genetic predispositions toward certain diseases.

(A) not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate
(B) do damage by themselves but also are aggravating to
(C) are damaging by themselves but also are aggravating
(D) not only do damage by themselves, they are also aggravating to
(E) are doing damage by themselves, and they are also aggravating

A
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Re: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating  [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2019, 17:14
Hello Everyone!

This looks like a great example of a question that deals with both idiom structures and parallelism! To start, here is the original question, with major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate genetic predispositions toward certain diseases.

(A) not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate
(B) do damage by themselves but also are aggravating to
(C) are damaging by themselves but also are aggravating
(D) not only do damage by themselves, they are also aggravating to
(E) are doing damage by themselves, and they are also aggravating

After a quick glance over the options, there are 2 main things we can focus on:

1. Parallelism: damage/aggravate & damaging/aggravating
2. Idiom Structure: not only X, but also Y

Let's start with #1 on our list: parallelism. No matter which structure you end up using later on, both verbs need to be written using the same structure. Parallel structure is clearer, easier to read, and looks more professional - all things the GMAT loves! Here's how each option holds up:

(A) not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate
(B) do damage by themselves but also are aggravating to
(C) are damaging by themselves but also are aggravating
(D) not only do damage by themselves, they are also aggravating to
(E) are doing damage by themselves, and they are also aggravating

We can eliminate options B, D, & E because the verbs they use aren't parallel. Now, let's focus on #2 on our list: idiom structure. The idiom structure we're using here should look like this:

not only X but also Y

Let's see how each option handles this:

(A) not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate

This is CORRECT! It follows the "not only X but also Y" idiom structure, and both X and Y are written using parallel structure!

(C) are damaging by themselves but also are aggravating

This is INCORRECT because it doesn't use the "not only X but also Y" structure. It's missing the "not only" part. You could fix this by replacing the "but also" with "and" to make it clearer for readers.

There you go - option A was the correct choice all along!

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Re: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2019, 05:52
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Re: Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating   [#permalink] 26 Nov 2019, 05:52
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