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Dolphins can swim at high speeds and achieve high acceleration in the

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Dolphins can swim at high speeds and achieve high acceleration in the water. In 1936, Sir James Gray calculated the force dolphins should be able to exert based on their physiology. He concluded that the propulsive force they were able to exert was not enough to explain how fast they swim and accelerate. In the 2000s, experimenters used special computer-enhanced measurements of the water in which dolphins were swimming. Through mathematical modeling, they were able to measure the force dolphins exert with their tails. As it turns out, dolphins exert considerably more force with their tails than Sir James Gray or anybody else ever expected. Therefore, the force exerted by their tails easily explains how fast they swim and accelerate.

In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) This first is a piece of evidence supporting the main conclusion; the second is the main conclusion.

B) The first is a false conclusion based on an incorrect premise; the second is the revised conclusion drawn from the corrected premise.

C) The first is an opinion the author seeks to refute; the second is the opinion the author supports.

D) The first is a prediction that, if accurate, would provide support for the main conclusion of the argument; the second is the main conclusion.

E) The first is a generally held assumption; the second is a conclusion that violates that assumption.


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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by JarvisR on 20 Mar 2016, 23:01, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the premise to add boldface.

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Please bold face the parts that are supposed to be bold faced. Thanks
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New post 19 Jun 2015, 07:08
I'm surprised that 11 people actually attempted the question, that is in essence incomplete.
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New post 19 Jun 2015, 08:28
kvazar wrote:
I'm surprised that 11 people actually attempted the question, that is in essence incomplete.



even I am wondering ....how ??? :shock: :shock: :shock: :shock:
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Dolphins can swim at high speeds and achieve high acceleration in the water. In 1936, Sir James Gray calculated the force dolphins should be able to exert based on their physiology. He concluded that the propulsive force they were able to exert was not enough to explain how fast they swim and accelerate. In the 2000s, experimenters used special computer-enhanced measurements of the water in which dolphins were swimming. Through mathematical modeling, they were able to measure the force dolphins exert with their tails. As it turns out, dolphins exert considerably more force with their tails than Sir James Gray or anybody else ever expected. Therefore, the force exerted by their tails easily explains how fast they swim and accelerate.

In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) This first is a piece of evidence supporting the main conclusion; the second is the main conclusion.

B) The first is a false conclusion based on an incorrect premise; the second is the revised conclusion drawn from the corrected premise.

C) The first is an opinion the author seeks to refute; the second is the opinion the author supports.

D) The first is a prediction that, if accurate, would provide support for the main conclusion of the argument; the second is the main conclusion.

E) The first is a generally held assumption; the second is a conclusion that violates that assumption.


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Hi,
Lets try and solve the mystery of boldfaced portion
sometimes We have to work backwords.. this seems to be similar to data sufficiency questions of maths..
my answer to which part should be boldfaced after seeing the answer is marked in coloured portion above.. :wink:
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Dolphins can swim at high speeds and achieve high acceleration in the water. In 1936, Sir James Gray calculated the force dolphins should be able to exert based on their physiology. He concluded that the propulsive force they were able to exert was not enough to explain how fast they swim and accelerate. In the 2000s, experimenters used special computer-enhanced measurements of the water in which dolphins were swimming. Through mathematical modeling, they were able to measure the force dolphins exert with their tails. As it turns out, dolphins exert considerably more force with their tails than Sir James Gray or anybody else ever expected. Therefore, the force exerted by their tails easily explains how fast they swim and accelerate.

In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) This first is a piece of evidence supporting the main conclusion; the second is the main conclusion.
B) The first is a false conclusion based on an incorrect premise; the second is the revised conclusion drawn from the corrected premise.
C) The first is an opinion the author seeks to refute; the second is the opinion the author supports.
D) The first is a prediction that, if accurate, would provide support for the main conclusion of the argument; the second is the main conclusion.
E) The first is a generally held assumption; the second is a conclusion that violates that assumption.
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Dolphins can swim at high speeds and achieve high acceleration in the water. In 1936, Sir James Gray calculated the force dolphins should be able to exert based on their physiology. He concluded that the propulsive force they were able to exert was not enough to explain how fast they swim and accelerate. In the 2000s, experimenters used special computer-enhanced measurements of the water in which dolphins were swimming. Through mathematical modeling, they were able to measure the force dolphins exert with their tails. As it turns out, dolphins exert considerably more force with their tails than Sir James Gray or anybody else ever expected. Therefore, the force exerted by their tails easily explains how fast they swim and accelerate.

In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) This first is a piece of evidence supporting the main conclusion.......This is not an evidence and does not support the conclusion
the second is the main conclusion........correct
B) The first is a false conclusion based on an incorrect premise;.......correct
the second is the revised conclusion drawn from the corrected premise........correct
C) The first is an opinion the author seeks to refute;......The author does not seek to refute this conclusion of James and this is not an opinion
the second is the opinion the author supports.....not an opinion again
D) The first is a prediction that, if accurate, would provide support for the main conclusion of the argument;This is not a prediction.wrong
the second is the main conclusion. correct
E) The first is a generally held assumption;......This is not an assumption.wrong
the second is a conclusion that violates that assumption. conclusion opposes but not violates the assumption. wrong

Did i go wrong in my analysis anywhere Harley1980
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New post 13 Dec 2015, 12:12
can anyone explain what is the incorrect premise for the first part? is it the experiment?

I selected C, as the first is the opinion of JG, which states that info is not sufficient to explain. then the author mentions that based on new tests, it is sufficient to explain. C works as well..

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Harley1980 wrote:
Dolphins can swim at high speeds and achieve high acceleration in the water. In 1936, Sir James Gray calculated the force dolphins should be able to exert based on their physiology. He concluded that the propulsive force they were able to exert was not enough to explain how fast they swim and accelerate. In the 2000s, experimenters used special computer-enhanced measurements of the water in which dolphins were swimming. Through mathematical modeling, they were able to measure the force dolphins exert with their tails. As it turns out, dolphins exert considerably more force with their tails than Sir James Gray or anybody else ever expected. Therefore, the force exerted by their tails easily explains how fast they swim and accelerate.

In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) This first is a piece of evidence supporting the main conclusion; the second is the main conclusion.
B) The first is a false conclusion based on an incorrect premise; the second is the revised conclusion drawn from the corrected premise.
C) The first is an opinion the author seeks to refute; the second is the opinion the author supports.
D) The first is a prediction that, if accurate, would provide support for the main conclusion of the argument; the second is the main conclusion.
E) The first is a generally held assumption; the second is a conclusion that violates that assumption.


Hello. Can you please explain why "D" cannot be the correct answer? Sir James did predict that there were forces stronger than the propulsive forces (propulsive forces were not enough...) which lead to the high speeds. Later in the BF2 , these forces were correctly identified.

In contrast, the correct answer (B) , says that the first conclusion was false. Technically, Sir James had predicted that more forces were needed. So how can we say that his conclusion was false?

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Can someone explain what is the incorrect premise in the argument as option B suggests?

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Dolphins can swim at high speeds and achieve high acceleration in the water. In 1936, Sir James Gray calculated the force dolphins should be able to exert based on their physiology. He concluded that the propulsive force they were able to exert was not enough to explain how fast they swim and accelerate. In the 2000s, experimenters used special computer-enhanced measurements of the water in which dolphins were swimming. Through mathematical modelling, they were able to measure the force dolphins exert with their tails. As it turns out, dolphins exert considerably more force with their tails than Sir James Gray or anybody else ever expected. Therefore, the force exerted by their tails easily explains how fast they swim and accelerate

A fact about dolphins is mentioned. Dolphins swim at high speeds and achieve high accelerations, But how did they do so?
James Gray was very about this fact and he wanted to find out what process/phenomenon helped dolphins do this.


So he calculated( we have not been given how he calculated) that force exerted by dolphins is directly linked to their physiology.


So he made a conclusion on the ground of above premise, that their physiology was not enough to generate enough force for this kind of high acceleration.


Note the shift of Tone :As it turns out, dolphins exert considerably more force with their tails than Sir James Gray or anybody else ever expected. Therefore, the force exerted by their tails easily explains how fast they swim and accelerate.

So now we know that dolphins did so because of their fins and not their physiology. so definitely the calculation James used must be incorrect


TheMastermind : it was this incorrect calculation ( premise) that the correct answer choice refers to
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TheMastermind wrote:
Can someone explain what is the incorrect premise in the argument as option B suggests?


Hi TheMastermind ,

The incorrect premise here is the experiment that he did. Notice that we are given that based on his experiments, he concluded something.

Thus, his experiments would be considered a premise for his conclusion.

Does that make sense?
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Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Can anyone explain why option C is wrong .I cant find any mistake with as the first statement is an opinion that the argument refutes .
Please help
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New post 13 Sep 2017, 08:46
arvind910619 wrote:
Can anyone explain why option C is wrong .I cant find any mistake with as the first statement is an opinion that the argument refutes .
Please help


Hi arvind910619,

C states both portions of the argument are opinions.

Let's look at the question:

Dolphins can swim at high speeds and achieve high acceleration in the water. In 1936, Sir James Gray calculated the force dolphins should be able to exert based on their physiology. He concluded that the propulsive force they were able to exert was not enough to explain how fast they swim and accelerate. In the 2000s, experimenters used special computer-enhanced measurements of the water in which dolphins were swimming. Through mathematical modeling, they were able to measure the force dolphins exert with their tails. As it turns out, dolphins exert considerably more force with their tails than Sir James Gray or anybody else ever expected. Therefore, the force exerted by their tails easily explains how fast they swim and accelerate.

Note the words highlighted. The first states that he concluded. This is a conclusion about his findings. The second portion, which begins with 'therefore' (another signal word for a conclusion), says the new findings conclude that Sir James Gray was inaccurate. Neither of these statements are opinions, they are scientifically backed facts. Facts are not opinions. One refutes the other, this is true. But this is the extent to which (C) is accurate.

Does this help?
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Dolphins can swim at high speeds and achieve high acceleration in the water. In 1936, Sir James Gray calculated the force dolphins should be able to exert based on their physiology. He concluded that the propulsive force they were able to exert was not enough to explain how fast they swim and accelerate. In the 2000s, experimenters used special computer-enhanced measurements of the water in which dolphins were swimming. Through mathematical modeling, they were able to measure the force dolphins exert with their tails. As it turns out, dolphins exert considerably more force with their tails than Sir James Gray or anybody else ever expected. Therefore, the force exerted by their tails easily explains how fast they swim and accelerate.

In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) This first is a piece of evidence supporting the main conclusion; the second is the main conclusion.

B) The first is a false conclusion based on an incorrect premise; the second is the revised conclusion drawn from the corrected premise.

C) The first is an opinion the author seeks to refute; the second is the opinion the author supports.

D) The first is a prediction that, if accurate, would provide support for the main conclusion of the argument; the second is the main conclusion.

E) The first is a generally held assumption; the second is a conclusion that violates that assumption.

Let us first figure out the structure of the passage and then move on to the answer choices.

Premise 1: Dolphins can swim at high speeds and achieve high acceleration in the water.
Premise 2: In 1936, Sir James Gray calculated the force dolphins should be able to exert based on their physiology.
Initial conclusion: He concluded that the propulsive force they were able to exert was not enough to explain how fast they swim and accelerate.

Premise 1 is very general. Premise 2 is used to introduce the concept of calculating >> dolphins exerting force based on their physiology. This premise is used to support the initial conclusion. The initial conclusion being that the force they (the dolphins) were able to exert was not enough to explain how fast they swim and how fast they accelerate.

Now let's move on to the remaining;
Premise 3: In the 2000s, experimenters used special computer-enhanced measurements of the water in which dolphins were swimming.
Premise 4: Through mathematical modeling, they were able to measure the force dolphins exert with their tails.
Premise 5: As it turns out, dolphins exert considerably more force with their tails than Sir James Gray or anybody else ever expected.
Main conclusion: Therefore, the force exerted by their tails easily explains how fast they swim and accelerate.

All the premises after the initial conclusion basically say that there is a physiological feature that helps in explaining how fast they swim and accelerate. Which implies/suggests that the calculation the Sir James Gray had made may have been incorrect. Alright let's move on to the answer choices:

A)This first is a piece of evidence supporting the main conclusion; the second is the main conclusion. - First is not a piece of evidence, it is an initial conclusion that the author posits against.
B) The first is a false conclusion based on an incorrect premise; the second is the revised conclusion drawn from the corrected premise.- The conclusion Sir had come to was based on calculating the propulsion force. That propulsion force was incorrect. First part is correct. The second is a revised conclusion based on the premise that the force calculated by the tail was wrong so the the propulsion force calculated earlier must have been incorrect. Second part is correct. - Correct answer.

C) The first is an opinion the author seeks to refute; the second is the opinion the author supports. - The second part talks about the opinion the author supports, that is not true. the second is the author's conclusion not someone else's opinion.

D) The first is a prediction that, if accurate, would provide support for the main conclusion of the argument; the second is the main conclusion. - The first is not a prediction but an initial conclusion. Incorrect

E) The first is a generally held assumption; the second is a conclusion that violates that assumption. - The first is Sir James Gray's conclusion and not a generally held opinion.

Hence, B. Apologies for the long post. :)

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