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# During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic

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Senior Manager
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During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 20 Dec 2012, 21:18
5
7
Question 1
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based on 634 sessions

85% (02:29) correct 15% (02:53) wrong

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Question 2
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Question 3
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Question 5
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74% (01:03) correct 26% (01:18) wrong

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During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic development strategy of local governments in the United States was to attract manufacturing industries. Unfortunately, this strategy was usually implemented at another community's expense: many manufacturing facilities were lured away from their moorings elsewhere through tax incentives and slick promotional efforts. Through the transfer of jobs and related revenues that resulted from this practice, one town's triumph could become another town's tragedy.

In the 1980's the strategy shifted from this zero-sum game to one called “high-technology development,” in which local governments competed to attract newly formed high-technology manufacturing firms. Although this approach was preferable to victimizing other geographical areas by taking their jobs, it also had its shortcomings: high-tech manufacturing firms employ only a specially trained fraction of the manufacturing workforce, and there simply are not enough high-tech firms to satisfy all geographic areas.

Recently, local governments have increasingly come to recognize the advantages of yet a third strategy: the promotion of homegrown small businesses. Small indigenous businesses are created by a nearly ubiquitous resource, local entrepreneurs. With roots in their communities, these individuals are less likely to be enticed away by incentives offered by another community. Indigenous industry and talent are kept at home, creating an environment that both provides jobs and fosters further entrepreneurship.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) advocate more effective strategies for encouraging the development of high- technology enterprises in the United States
(B) contrast the incentives for economic development offered by local governments with those offered by the private sector
(C) acknowledge and counter adverse criticism of programs being used to stimulate local economic development
(D) define and explore promotional efforts used by local governments to attract new industry
(E) review and evaluate strategies and programs that have been used to stimulate economic development

Answer: E

2. The passage suggests which of the following about the majority of United States manufacturing industries before the high-technology development era of the 1980's?

(A) They lost many of their most innovative personnel to small entrepreneurial enterprises.
(B) They experienced a major decline in profits during the 1960’s and 1970’s.
(C) They could provide real economic benefits to the areas in which they were located.
(D) They employed workers who had no specialized skills.
(E) They actively interfered with local entrepreneurial ventures.

Answer: C

3. The tone of the passage suggests that the author is most optimistic about the economic development potential of which of the following groups?

(A) Local governments
(B) High-technology promoters
(C) Local entrepreneurs
(D) Manufacturing-industry managers
(E) Economic development strategists

Answer: C

4. The passage does NOT state which of the following about local entrepreneurs?

(A) They are found nearly everywhere.
(B) They encourage further entrepreneurship.
(C) They attract out-of-town investors.
(D) They employ local workers.
(E) They are established in their communities.

Answer: C

5. The author of the passage mentions which of the following as an advantage of high-technology development?

(A) It encourages the modernization of existing manufacturing facilities.
(B) It promotes healthy competition between rival industries.
(C) It encourages the growth of related industries.
(D) It takes full advantage of the existing workforce.
(E) It does not advantage one local workforce at the expense of another.

Answer: E

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Originally posted by PrashantPonde on 20 Dec 2012, 21:14.
Last edited by PrashantPonde on 20 Dec 2012, 21:18, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2014, 22:33
IMO ECCCA

can someone please explain question 5.. i choose A, as it looks to me that option E is not discussed in passage.
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2014, 03:04
samratkokula wrote:
IMO ECCCA

can someone please explain question 5.. i choose A, as it looks to me that option E is not discussed in passage.

It says in line 15 - this approach was preferable to victimizing other geographical areas by taking their jobs

Hence E.
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2016, 23:08
Hi, can someone explain question number 2? I dont get it why c
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2017, 01:31
LouisaLim wrote:
Hi, can someone explain question number 2? I dont get it why c

The first line in the passage
During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic development strategy of local governments in the United States was to attract manufacturing industries.
we can infer from this that manufacturing industries provided economic benefits.

Hope this resolves your doubt.
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2017, 06:58
6:48 sec(including reading) ..4 out of 5 were correct..missed the last one...

For last question,Most will be narrow down to A and E.

For last question why A is wrong: Govt try to attract newly formed high-technology manufacturing firms(1st line of 2nd paragraph).It is not benefiting existing one.
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2017, 00:39
Got all correct. But took 8 mins 34 seconds. Looks like I need to improve my speed

E C C C E
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During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2017, 12:12
1
1
Took 6 mins 15 seconds, including 2 mins 15 seconds to read

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(E) review and evaluate strategies and programs that have been used to stimulate economic development - it discusses three strategies

2. The passage suggests which of the following about the majority of United States manufacturing industries before the high-technology development era of the 1980's?
(C) They could provide real economic benefits to the areas in which they were located. -"Through the transfer of jobs and related revenues that resulted from this practice, one town's triumph could become another town's tragedy."

3. The tone of the passage suggests that the author is most optimistic about the economic development potential of which of the following groups?
(C) Local entrepreneurs - the last para talks only good about them

4. The passage does NOT state which of the following about local entrepreneurs?
(C) They attract out-of-town investors.

5. The author of the passage mentions which of the following as an advantage of high-technology development?
(E) It does not advantage one local workforce at the expense of another. -"Although this approach was preferable to victimizing other geographical areas by taking their jobs"
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2017, 06:22
please reply of all questions of rc
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2017, 03:17
Why answer of first question (primary purpose of passage) is E and not C. What is the subtle difference between both of them? Pls explain
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During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2017, 04:03
2
nikhilbhide wrote:
Why answer of first question (primary purpose of passage) is E and not C. What is the subtle difference between both of them? Pls explain

Hi nikhilbhide,

To answer your question we first need to understand the structure of the passage.

1st PARA : During the 1960's and 1970's, local governments in the United States were looking for the primary economic development of their community/town. They opted a strategy -- this strategy was usually implemented at another community's expense.

2nd PARA : In the 1980's the strategy shifted from this zero-sum game to one called “high-technology development,” in which local governments competed to attract newly formed high-technology manufacturing firms.

3rd PARA : third strategy: the promotion of homegrown small businesses.

As can be understood from the above structure and reading the details of each para, the author is talking about 3 strategies out of which the first 2 did not worked well due to some limitations. The tone of author for the 3rd strategy is positive and optimistic. So, local governments have increasingly come to recognize the advantages of it.

Now, coming to the question,
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(C) acknowledge and counter adverse criticism of programs being used to stimulate local economic development
The author is simply reviewing and evaluating the 3 strategies as mentioned in the passage. Also, only the limitations are mentioned for the first 2 of the above mentioned strategies. There is no direct and adverse criticism which is countered by the author. Also, only the 3rd strategy is acknowledged by the author, because of the optimistic view of the author we can say this. So option C is incorrect.

(E) review and evaluate strategies and programs that have been used to stimulate economic development
Correct Answer. As discussed above.

Hope it clears your doubt. Let me know if you have any questions.

Thanks.
-Varun
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Joined: 20 Nov 2016
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2017, 13:45
aceGMAT21 wrote:
nikhilbhide wrote:
Why answer of first question (primary purpose of passage) is E and not C. What is the subtle difference between both of them? Pls explain

Hi nikhilbhide,

To answer your question we first need to understand the structure of the passage.

1st PARA : During the 1960's and 1970's, local governments in the United States were looking for the primary economic development of their community/town. They opted a strategy -- this strategy was usually implemented at another community's expense.

2nd PARA : In the 1980's the strategy shifted from this zero-sum game to one called “high-technology development,” in which local governments competed to attract newly formed high-technology manufacturing firms.

3rd PARA : third strategy: the promotion of homegrown small businesses.

As can be understood from the above structure and reading the details of each para, the author is talking about 3 strategies out of which the first 2 did not worked well due to some limitations. The tone of author for the 3rd strategy is positive and optimistic. So, local governments have increasingly come to recognize the advantages of it.

Now, coming to the question,
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(C) acknowledge and counter adverse criticism of programs being used to stimulate local economic development
The author is simply reviewing and evaluating the 3 strategies as mentioned in the passage. Also, only the limitations are mentioned for the first 2 of the above mentioned strategies. There is no direct and adverse criticism which is countered by the author. Also, only the 3rd strategy is acknowledged by the author, because of the optimistic view of the author we can say this. So option C is incorrect.

(E) review and evaluate strategies and programs that have been used to stimulate economic development
Correct Answer. As discussed above.

Hope it clears your doubt. Let me know if you have any questions.

Thanks.
-Varun

Thanks aceGMAT21 for the detailed explanation!

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25 Oct 2017, 10:43
All correct - relatively easy passage.
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2018, 03:50
Could you please share the explanation for Q 3 and 4
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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2018, 17:56
praveenmittal95605 wrote:
Could you please share the explanation for Q 3 and 4

Quote:
3. The tone of the passage suggests that the author is most optimistic about the economic development potential of which of the following groups?

(A) Local governments
(B) High-technology promoters
(C) Local entrepreneurs
(D) Manufacturing-industry managers
(E) Economic development strategists

In the first paragraph, the author describes the shortcomings of the strategy used in the 60s and 70s (attracting manufacturing industries). In the second paragraph, the author describes the shortcomings of the strategy used in the 80s ("high-technology development"). Then in the third paragraph, the author discusses the advantages of a third strategy (the promotion of homegrown small businesses, which are created by local entrepreneurs).

To summarize, the author discusses the shortcomings of two strategies and then the advantages of a third strategy. "[Local entrepreneurs] are less likely to be enticed away by incentives offered by another community. Indigenous industry and talent are kept at home, creating an environment that both provides jobs and fosters further entrepreneurship." Thus the author seems most optimistic about the third strategy, which supports local entrepreneurs.

As for question 4, refer to the last paragraph:

Quote:
4. The passage does NOT state which of the following about local entrepreneurs?

(A) They are found nearly everywhere. The passage states that local entrepreneurs are "nearly ubiquitous", which means "found nearly everywhere." Eliminate (A).
(B) They encourage further entrepreneurship. "Indigenous industry and talent are kept at home, creating an environment that... fosters further entrepreneurship." - Eliminate (B).
(C) They attract out-of-town investors. This is not mentioned in the passage, so (C) looks good.
(D) They employ local workers. "Indigenous industry and talent are kept at home, creating an environment that... provides jobs" - This implies that jobs are created locally, so eliminate (D).
(E) They are established in their communities. The passage mentions that entrepreneurs have "roots in their communities," which implies that they are established in their communities. Eliminate (E).

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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2018, 18:48
Took 7:31 mins. Too slow.
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17 Oct 2018, 23:10
samratkokula wrote:
IMO ECCCA

can someone please explain question 5.. i choose A, as it looks to me that option E is not discussed in passage.

I think answer to Q5 has more meaning than expected.

If you refer the below part:
Quote:
Although this approach was preferable to victimizing other geographical areas by taking their jobs, it also had its shortcomings: high-tech manufacturing firms employ only a specially trained fraction of the manufacturing workforce, and there simply are not enough high-tech firms to satisfy all geographic areas.

The first sentence only says it was preferable and then mentions shortcomings. Not having enough high-tech firms implies one area cannot offer jobs because of the special training needed. That means, it doesn't advantage one local community at the expense of other community. The advantage of high-tech development is with respect to the main purpose of the passage. To corroborate this, the question stem mentions:
Quote:
The author of the passage mentions which of the following as an advantage of high-technology development?

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Re: During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic &nbs [#permalink] 17 Oct 2018, 23:10
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# During the 1960's and 1970's, the primary economic

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