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During the 1980's approximately $50 billion in private [#permalink] ### Show Tags 25 Sep 2004, 19:06 00:00 Difficulty: (N/A) Question Stats: 0% (00:00) correct 0% (00:00) wrong based on 1 sessions ### HideShow timer Statistics During the 1980's approximately$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added to the strain on the country's debt-ridden economy.

A) During the 1980's approximately $50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added B) During the 1980's it is estimated that approximately$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico and added
C) It is estimated that there was approximately $50 billion in private investment capital that left Mexico during the 1980's and added D) It is estimated that during the 1980's approximately$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico, adding
E) Approximately $50 billion in private investment capital is estimated as having left Mexico during the 1980's, adding _________________ Best Regards, Paul If you have any questions you can ask an expert New! VP Joined: 13 Jun 2004 Posts: 1118 Location: London, UK Schools: Tuck'08 Followers: 7 Kudos [?]: 45 [0], given: 0 ### Show Tags 25 Sep 2004, 19:35 I hesitate between C and D. I choose D but if someone can explain me why it can not be "adding", I will be happy to listen to him. I can't find if it has to be "added" or "adding"... I presume there is a rule but I don't get it. Please explain if you know the answer. Thanks. Senior Manager Affiliations: CFA Level 2 Joined: 05 May 2004 Posts: 266 Location: Hanoi Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 100 [0], given: 0 ### Show Tags 25 Sep 2004, 19:39 Antmavel wrote: I hesitate between C and D. I choose D but if someone can explain me why it can not be "adding", I will be happy to listen to him. I can't find if it has to be "added" or "adding"... I presume there is a rule but I don't get it. Please explain if you know the answer. Thanks. It shouldn't be "adding" cuz it can make an ambiguilty: "adding" is the verb of "It is estimated" or "$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico".
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26 Sep 2004, 10:07
C/D

i go for D

C is wordy n changes the meaning of the sentence

it means as if full amount of private investmnt capital left mexico
rather than a part of it

OA?
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26 Sep 2004, 11:14
What do you think about the added / adding point ? IMO both are compliant with the general meaning of the sentence.

In C, is the "was" related to capital or misused and related to 50 Bn ?

PS : I choose D
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26 Sep 2004, 11:54
In C, we can be done without 'there was'. Also you'll notice too many 'that' in the sentence. Thus C is wordy.

D for me.
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26 Sep 2004, 16:53
I choose D.

twixt wrote:
What do you think about the added / adding point ? IMO both are compliant with the general meaning of the sentence.

In C, is the "was" related to capital or misused and related to 50 Bn ?

PS : I choose D

Antmavel wrote:
I hesitate between C and D.
I choose D but if someone can explain me why it can not be "adding", I will be happy to listen to him.
I can't find if it has to be "added" or "adding"... I presume there is a rule but I don't get it. Please explain if you know the answer. Thanks.

IMO, "and added" and "adding" are not same. I read the below in the web somewhere (let me know if you want me to search the source).

In C, "and added" shows like that these two happenings are not relared.
In D, "adding" makes it a participal clause, allowing us to infer that the first action is a cause for the second effect.

Btw, did you notice that, in A and B, is seems like the estimation was done in 1950
And the error in E - You can estimate stock, you can estimate cost. You cannot estimate 50 billion.
Eg: Stock is estimated to raise to 50 Billion
Eg: The cost is estimated to raise to 50 Billion
Eg: <Wrong> 50 Billion is estimated to be the price of the company <Wrong>
Does this make sense?
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26 Sep 2004, 19:52
OA is D as explained by venksune and hardworker. Good job. I noticed that the concept of participial phrases comes back very often on just any test (this is from an ETS paper test) so it is very important to be able to define its use. This is what I would call a second order learning in GMAT SC. First, you learn about parallelism, misplaced modifiers, pronoun agreement, etc. Then, learning about clauses/phrases, parenthetical element, run-on sentences, etc. would be the next step up in the process.
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26 Sep 2004, 20:39
Paul,

I was thinking about this today afternoon. You guyz (Paul,Venks,Hardworker) know so many concepts . Why don't you guyz list them and explain them with an example.

OK..this might be a bit too much that Iam asking you...but believe me,everytime u share some gyaan on this forum, i copy it to a notepad for reference later.
You guyz are awesome and am very happy to have found this forum.

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27 Sep 2004, 02:29
How could we write something different from Newkid !!

You are really great guys ! This site is by far more useful than all the kaplan material I bought during the past 4 months...

I agree with Newkid as I am sure you have still lots of amazing tricks...

I have several questions in that direction :

What are parenthetical elements and run-on sentences ?

Regarding this pb 50 Bn is considered as singular in A, C and E. Is it something normal ????
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27 Sep 2004, 06:22
twixt wrote:
Regarding this pb 50 Bn is considered as singular in A, C and E. Is it something normal ????

Yes, some surprise singular examples:
- 10000 dollars is a lot of money.
- Two fifths of grain is ruined.
- 5 yards is too long a distance to cover.

NEWKID wrote:
Paul,

I was thinking about this today afternoon. You guyz (Paul,Venks,Hardworker) know so many concepts . Why don't you guyz list them and explain them with an example.
OK..this might be a bit too much that Iam asking you...but believe me,everytime u share some gyaan on this forum, i copy it to a notepad for reference later.
You guyz are awesome and am very happy to have found this forum.

Not sure what to say. Thanks for the comments. Will surely find a way to put the concepts across.

Almost 90% of my verbal notes are from Gmatclub - Paul, anandnk, jp, etc. With good notes, you guys will master more faster than we do.
When you are bored, get into the archive and search for hot discussions (its not easy to find one). That is how I am able to give you old links.
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27 Sep 2004, 11:12
Thank you for the comments guys. One thing I learned at GMATclub is to try to explain things in your own words. Do the research and try to explain it even though it's your first time. All of the below concepts I had no clue of before actively participating. I am also a non-native and english is only my 3rd language . Try to do what I said and you will see how better you will get at verbal. Well, here are some explanations and discussions on the concepts afore mentioned.
This is a link with some explanations on participial phrases:
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic ... 33&start=0
This is a link to explanations on parenthetical elements:
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=7232
This is a link to explanations on ellipsis:
http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=7635
As to run-on sentences, they are just 2 independent clauses merged together but without the inclusion of a conjunction to link the 2. Here is a link explaining that:
http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/runons.htm

There are also some good discussions on the "best of GMAT" forum. Enjoy.
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Paul

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28 Sep 2004, 14:34
Thank you Paul and Hardworker,

I catched the participal concept !!

Regarding this plural/singular dilemna, I opened my old college grammar books and there is no comment about these particular examples !? Do you guys have a list not to forget any of these exceptions ?
28 Sep 2004, 14:34
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