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# During the 1980s approximately \$50 billion in private

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Director
Joined: 11 Jun 2007
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During the 1980s approximately \$50 billion in private [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2007, 09:15
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260. During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added to the strain on the country’s debt-ridden economy.
(A) During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added
(B) During the 1980’s it is estimated that approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico and added
(C) It is estimated that there was approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital that left Mexico during the 1980’s and added
(D) It is estimated that during the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico, adding
(E) Approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated as having left Mexico during the 1980’s, adding

Can someone please explain why 'estimated as having left' in (E) is wrong? I would appreciate if the reason provided is more helpful than 'sounds awkward' )-.

I understand that 'estimated to be' is idiomatic but looks like 'estimated as' is also idiomatic.

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24 Oct 2007, 09:36
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eyunni wrote:
260. During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added to the strain on the country’s debt-ridden economy.
(A) During the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated to have left Mexico and added
(B) During the 1980’s it is estimated that approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico and added
(C) It is estimated that there was approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital that left Mexico during the 1980’s and added
(D) It is estimated that during the 1980’s approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital left Mexico, adding
(E) Approximately \$50 billion in private investment capital is estimated as having left Mexico during the 1980’s, adding

Can someone please explain why 'estimated as having left' in (E) is wrong? I would appreciate if the reason provided is more helpful than 'sounds awkward' )-.

I understand that 'estimated to be' is idiomatic but looks like 'estimated as' is also idiomatic.

\$50 million was the estimated amount that had supposedly left mexico.

More than the grammar involved just look at E - it says Approx 50 mil is estimated has having left mexico - indicating that the estimate was that the money had left mexico - where as the it was the AMOUNT whose estimated value was 50 Million THAT had left mexico.

All things considered D sounds best.

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24 Oct 2007, 10:15
I chose D as well.

I excluded E because I felt the term "estimated at having" was too awkward.

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Director
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24 Oct 2007, 10:19
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A, B, C are all bad because of the "and added"...the capital itself wasn't added to the strain.

E uses the very strange "as having", which might be grammatically correct but is clearly stylistically inferior to D.

D

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Director
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26 Oct 2007, 14:12
OA is D.

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Re: During the 1980s approximately \$50 billion in private [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2016, 19:40
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The core problem lies in equating the capital 'leaving' the country with 'the adding' to the strain. Adding to the strain is an effect of the 'leaving'. Hence leaving should be given the prime status and be referred by a verb. The adding part should be referred by a 'comma + ing' present participle (, adding) and not by ‘added’. Therefore, we can eliminate ABC on that score alone. Between D and E, D outplaces E with the better idiomatic use of 'estimated that'.
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Re: During the 1980s approximately \$50 billion in private   [#permalink] 02 Feb 2016, 19:40
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