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# During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was

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During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2009, 17:08
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During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of

(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of

(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue

(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of

(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Here, I can eliminate D, E since the first clause is dependent and started with during, and second clause must be an independent clause and this independent clause should start with a subject which is 'Native Americans'.

So that left me with A, B, and C options ..
A is wrong probably meaning is not right?

I am not confident why B is wrong .... may be it should have a comma "land intimately, and this enabled " or there is no proper reference to "them"?

Can some one explain for me in detail?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 10 Oct 2017, 17:00, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2009, 17:32
ugimba wrote:
262. During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

Here, I can eliminate D, E since the first clause is dependent and started with during, and second clause must be an independent clause and this independent clause should start with a subject which is 'Native Americans'.

So that left me with A, B, and C options ..
A is wrong probably meaning is not right?

I am not confident why B is wrong .... may be it should have a comma "land intimately, and this enabled " or there is no proper reference to "them"?

Can some one explain for me in detail?

IMO C (you also mentioned indirectly).

It is not B since native Americans were knowing "ecology of the land" which helped them to rescue pilgrims.......not ecology itself....

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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2009, 18:48
also B is wordy..

"to help in the rescue of"

so it should be C.

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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2009, 03:30
I have given a try to explain why C should be the right answer. It could be worng also. Please comment.

ugimba wrote:
262. During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of (intimately is adv does not fit before knowing the ecology)
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of ( 'this' raise the question here because it changes the meaning slightly. Native ameriacn helped not their knowing of......)
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue ( Case to be considered)
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue ( correct use of 'helped to rescue', but intimately as an adv does not fit properly)

Here, I can eliminate D, E since the first clause is dependent and started with during, and second clause must be an independent clause and this independent clause should start with a subject which is 'Native Americans'.

So that left me with A, B, and C options ..
A is wrong probably meaning is not right?

I am not confident why B is wrong .... may be it should have a comma "land intimately, and this enabled " or there is no proper reference to "them"?

Can some one explain for me in detail?

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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2009, 14:48
ugimba wrote:

Here, I can eliminate D, E since the first clause is dependent and started with during, and second clause must be an independent clause and this independent clause should start with a subject which is 'Native Americans'.

Is this a rule somewhere?

Yes, if first clause is dependent(in this case 'during' makes it dependent) then second clause must be an independent one (sub + verb and it can stand by itself). But I may take back one thing though ... "start with a subject which is 'Native Americans'" .... because I was solving one question this morning, the correct answer didn't start the subject itself ... there was a modifier before the subject ..but that clause was independent..

I appreciate if some one throws some more light on it ..

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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2010, 13:49
So 2 consecutive noun modifiers are not correct?
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20 Jul 2010, 07:44
Hey noboru, so far as I have read, I have not come across sentences with 2 consecutive noun modifiers. Can you provide some examples and that will help us understand and explain better.

C is best here.

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11 Sep 2010, 09:00
Clear C.
But, Is the usage of present contineous tense, such as knowing, having and knowing in A,D,C correct??
Pls help

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11 Sep 2010, 13:05
C for me too.

In B i didn't note the change in meaning by - native americans knew the ecology
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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2010, 14:50
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of - Native americans were a help in the rescuing of ? - this is reallly horrible to the ear.

(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of - why knew- this usage is not required here ? end of the sentence is awkward.
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue - Correct
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of - must begin with independent clause
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue- must begin with independent clause
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03 Dec 2010, 21:52
@Asthanap

During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers

I think the above text is a participial phrase acting as an adverbial modifier modifying the verb were (When were the Americans helpful).

I don't think its a clause because I don't find any verb in it.

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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2010, 00:58
C sounds the best.

Weird phrasing from the other answers, but the sentence begins with a subordinate clause. The subject that follows this clause should be independent.

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05 Dec 2010, 05:34
whats the OA??

i chose C because its more compact and to the point.

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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2010, 08:42
went with B. but thanks for the explanation.

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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2011, 06:33
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(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of ….. Were a help in the rescue of ---- wordy and unidiomatic

(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of…. distorted meaning: knew the ecology of the land and not the ecology and the land. The pronoun ‘this’ lacks a proper antecedent

(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue… the right choice using the right idiom 'helped to rescue’

(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of …. 1. Helped the rescue of – unidiomatic 2. The unseemly insertion of the modifier phrase ‘having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land’ may lead to mismodification of the new comers rather than of the Native Americans

(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue …………. The unseemly insertion of the modifier phrase ‘knowing the ecology of the land’ may lead to mis-modification of the new comers rather than ofthe Native Americans
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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 06:48
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

Quote:

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14 Jul 2012, 07:22
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During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

1.
1st clause- modifier that modifies the noun
2nd clause (Native Americans)- Noun

These two are rightly placed. Based on this we can eliminate D & E.

2. Looking at the end of underlined sentence we can notice
a. rescue of
b. to rescue

to rescue is the correct idiom also if you dont know the correct idiom, "in the rescue of" sounds really awkward.
This leave us with C.

Hope this helps.
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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 07:30
yashii9 wrote:
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

1.
1st clause- modifier that modifies the noun
2nd clause (Native Americans)- Noun

These two are rightly placed. Based on this we can eliminate D & E.

2. Looking at the end of underlined sentence we can notice
a. rescue of
b. to rescue

to rescue is the correct idiom also if you dont know the correct idiom, "in the rescue of" sounds really awkward.
This leave us with C.

Hope this helps.

that was an ideed great explanation.
i wanted to clarify 2 things here

1. did u eliminate A on the grounds of correct usuage of rescue of and rescue to?
correct me, i may be wrong, but rescuing of is not a wrong idiom.

2. does intimately knowing and intimate knowledge had any role to play in deciding the choice?
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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 08:40
After the customary POE of dropping A, B and D based on wrong use of idiom, C and E remain. Between them, C is superior simply because the modified noun is placed immediately after the initial modifier in C, while the modified noun appears after an additional modifier in E, thus rendering modification uncrisp

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14 Jul 2012, 09:39
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1. did u eliminate A on the grounds of correct usage of rescue of and rescue to?
correct me, i may be wrong, but rescuing of is not a wrong idiom.

http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/rescue -this should help.

As said by many -any gmat sentence will have more than one error to help us eliminate the answer choice.

2. does intimately knowing and intimate knowledge had any role to play in deciding the choice?

Yes indeed. But if you manage to eliminate answer choices based on "Rescue to" then your next selection becomes easier between c and E

However, if you are stuck at A - closely looking at the 3rd clause " intimately knowing" - we have an adverb which is modifying an gerund. This is incorrect usage.

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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was   [#permalink] 14 Jul 2012, 09:39

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