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During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in

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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2017, 02:19
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and - "involving" does not work with "... in agriculture"
B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - CORRECT, parallel structure.. "the large scale introduction" and "the substitution" + "of enclosed fields" and "of new farming techniques"
C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - reference of "which" is ambiguous
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of - comma missing between "revolution" and "involved" + not parallel "of enclosed fields" and "new farming techniques"
E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of - not parallel "of enclosed fields" and "new farming techniques"
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2017, 04:07
So many and is this sentence makes it awkward .
I chose option D .
B is the answer though .
I have a question if we remove of from Option D from end will it be correct?
Please help
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2017, 10:14
arvind910619 wrote:
So many and is this sentence makes it awkward .
I chose option D .
B is the answer though .
I have a question if we remove of from Option D from end will it be correct?
Please help


Yes, "D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming." is correct.

Notice that we need to make introduction and substitution || here.
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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In this question, I believe we don’t have main verb in many options.
A – During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
"widespread changes in agriculture" – this is the noun followed by modifiers.
1. known as the agrarian revolution – appositive
2. involving the large-scale introduction of… for subsistence farming – ing modifier that again modifies Noun.
So, we don’t have verb for the noun – sentence fragment.

B- Involved is the main verb, so we don’t have sentence fragment.
Also, parallelism is also working fine. Revolution involved 2 main things :-
1. the large-scale introduction ("of enclosed fields" and "of new farming techniques and crops" )
2. the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming
So all good with option B.

C – This is again a sentence fragment.
Section starting with WHICH leads to a new clause in which "WHICH" pronoun is acting as subject and INVOLVED is acting as verb for that.
This portion is fine, but after this a main verb was required for our main subject "widespread changes in agriculture" .
Structure of this sentence is :- Ing modifier, main subject , [new clause].
There is no verb for main subject. So wrong.

D – Parallelism is not maintained in this option.
Revolution involved:-
1. the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops
2. of the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
1 and 2 are clearly not parallel . ("OF" at the end of underlined part was not required)

E – This is again a sentence fragment just like option C (only we have THAT in place of WHICH here) because again “that involved… farming” is a separate clause and thus we don’t have main verb for subject "widespread changes in agriculture".
This option also has parallelism error like option D.
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2017, 23:54
ykaiim wrote:
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of


Imo B

involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming

[b]Here introduction should be parallel to substitution.
of enclosed fields should be parallel to of new farming techniques and crops .we need of gain to make sure that parallelism between different entities remain distinguishable[/b]


A is fragment
B is correct
C This does give us the intended meaning as some more information should come regarding revolution.
D This is not parallel
E that is not required here and also it does not maintain parallelism .
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During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2017, 22:19
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and - not even a sentence as verb is missing

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - Correct

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - no verb for the main clause

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of - Parallelism issue

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of - no verb for the main verb for subject "widespread changes in agriculture"


mikemcgarry ,sayantanc2k , RonPurewal , daagh ,GMATNinja ,egmat , other experts -- for option D , even if the of that follows and is removed , don't we need a comma after the word revolution since "known as the agrarian revolution" is an appositive -- so it needs to separated by commas on both sides and the subject is widespread changes in agriculture

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution , involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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I agree with regard to the comma issue. That is the reason B, as also with proper participial modification, is better than D. But the only thing is 'known as the agrarian revolution' is not an appositive but a past participle modifier. An appositive will be a noun that describes the widespread changes such as simply, 'an agrarian revolution'
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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in [#permalink]

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Skywalker18 wrote:
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and - not even a sentence as verb is missing

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - Correct

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - no verb for the main clause

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of - Parallelism issue

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of - no verb for the main verb for subject "widespread changes in agriculture"


mikemcgarry ,sayantanc2k , RonPurewal , daagh ,GMATNinja ,egmat , other experts -- for option D , even if the of that follows and is removed , don't we need a comma after the word revolution since "known as the agrarian revolution" is an appositive -- so it needs to separated by commas on both sides and the subject is widespread changes in agriculture

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution , involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.


Daagh Sir has already pointed out that the modifier is not an appositive but a past participle. Just to complete the reply your query, the comma would still be required because the (past participle) modifier is a non-essential modifier.

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Re: During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in   [#permalink] 18 Nov 2017, 01:26

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