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# During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, know

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16 Jun 2010, 06:08
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During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of

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11 Nov 2010, 09:51
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Although the passage looks like a jumble of endless apposite, still the revolution in essence involves two things only: 1. the large-scale introduction (of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops) and 2. The substitution (of commercial blah.) The trick is to temporally ignore the prepositional phrases and converge on the arms of the list. In this symmetrical structure, the two factors i.e. The introduction and the substitution should be parallelly placed.

A.C and E can be instantly dropped, because they each are fragments without working verbs.

Between B and D, D missies parallelism by unnecessarily adding a preposition - of - to the second arm of the list – the substitution -, while dropping it for the first arm, - the introduction

Of course, the multiple use of the conjunction – and - is appropriately done in both the contenders.

B is the choice
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16 Jun 2010, 13:08
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B.

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, [strike]known as the agrarian revolution[/strike], involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
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11 Nov 2010, 09:57
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This Q is testing parallelism in a very rough way.

(A) does not have main verb (should be "changes ..... involved")
(B) correct parallelism, very complicated though
(C) does not have main verb (should be "changes ..... involved")
(D) lack of comma introduces ambiguity: "revolution involved"
(E) does not have main verb (should be "changes ..... involved")
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12 Nov 2010, 23:57
1
raghavs wrote:
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian
revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming
techniques and crops, and
the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new
farming techniques and crops, and
B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new
farming techniques and crops, and
C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of
new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming
techniques and crops, and of
E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new
farming techniques and crops, and of

Here A states revolution, involving which makes the sentence very awkward...

B is correct in saying ...the large-scale introduction of A and of B... ,and C- here basically there is hierarchy of conjunctions.... [A and B] and c... it is maintained perfectly...

In C use of 'which' is redundant...

In D 'introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of' distorts the meaning...

In E usage of 'of' in climax changes the meaning of sentence.. it suggests that 'large-scale introduction.... of A and B, and of C' ie also large scale introduction of 'substitution of commercial for subsistence farming' ... which is so incorrect...

Definitely B is perfect...
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13 Aug 2013, 21:05
Any one care to take a look at this problem again?

My doubt is between B and D

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields,new farming techniques and crops, and of

IMHO, D should be correct because in B, we introduce "and" between a point 1 and 2 in a 3-point list. The way I read this is :
revolution involved
a) ...introduction of enclosed fields
b)..new farming techniques,
c)...the substitution of commercial....

the issue with D on the other hand is this unnecessary preposition "of" at the end of the third clause.
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13 Aug 2013, 21:49
2
MBAjunkie16 wrote:
Any one care to take a look at this problem again?

My doubt is between B and D

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and
D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields,new farming techniques and crops, and of

IMHO, D should be correct because in B, we introduce "and" between a point 1 and 2 in a 3-point list. The way I read this is :
revolution involved
a) ...introduction of enclosed fields
b)..new farming techniques,
c)...the substitution of commercial....

the issue with D on the other hand is this unnecessary preposition "of" at the end of the third clause.

as you pointed out the presence of OF breaks the parallelism and hence is wrong.

option B is correct.

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involved X , and Y.

X = {the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new (farming techniques and crops)}
[b]Y
= {the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.}

[/b]STRIKED OUT PART is modifier.
PARALLELISM IS BETWEEN X AND Y

IN X==> FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS ==>THEY ARE PARALLEL///////AND...INTRODUCTION OF A AND B are parallel.
where A=ENCLOSED FIELDS
B=FARMING TECHNIQUES AND CROPS..

so overall we have 3 parallel construction as we have 3 PARALLELISM MARKER i.e AND

HOPE IT HELPS
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10 Dec 2015, 05:48
2
B is no doubt the best of the lot. Still a small hazy area---The revolution involved two things namely 1. the large scale introduction of X and the substitution of Y. There are only two items in the main list. Do we need a comma between them, i.e before the second ‘and’? One might observe that there is no comma before the ‘and’ in the subordinate modifier namely ‘of enclosed fields’ and ‘of new farming techniques and crops’ and rightly so in IMO.
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23 Jun 2017, 05:07
So many and is this sentence makes it awkward .
I chose option D .
B is the answer though .
I have a question if we remove of from Option D from end will it be correct?
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23 Jun 2017, 11:14
arvind910619 wrote:
So many and is this sentence makes it awkward .
I chose option D .
B is the answer though .
I have a question if we remove of from Option D from end will it be correct?

Yes, "D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming." is correct.

Notice that we need to make introduction and substitution || here.
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11 Aug 2017, 14:06
2
1
In this question, I believe we don’t have main verb in many options.
A – During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
"widespread changes in agriculture" – this is the noun followed by modifiers.
1. known as the agrarian revolution – appositive
2. involving the large-scale introduction of… for subsistence farming – ing modifier that again modifies Noun.
So, we don’t have verb for the noun – sentence fragment.

B- Involved is the main verb, so we don’t have sentence fragment.
Also, parallelism is also working fine. Revolution involved 2 main things :-
1. the large-scale introduction ("of enclosed fields" and "of new farming techniques and crops" )
2. the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming
So all good with option B.

C – This is again a sentence fragment.
Section starting with WHICH leads to a new clause in which "WHICH" pronoun is acting as subject and INVOLVED is acting as verb for that.
This portion is fine, but after this a main verb was required for our main subject "widespread changes in agriculture" .
Structure of this sentence is :- Ing modifier, main subject , [new clause].
There is no verb for main subject. So wrong.

D – Parallelism is not maintained in this option.
Revolution involved:-
1. the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops
2. of the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
1 and 2 are clearly not parallel . ("OF" at the end of underlined part was not required)

E – This is again a sentence fragment just like option C (only we have THAT in place of WHICH here) because again “that involved… farming” is a separate clause and thus we don’t have main verb for subject "widespread changes in agriculture".
This option also has parallelism error like option D.
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17 Nov 2017, 23:19
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and - not even a sentence as verb is missing

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - Correct

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - no verb for the main clause

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of - Parallelism issue

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of - no verb for the main verb for subject "widespread changes in agriculture"

mikemcgarry ,sayantanc2k , RonPurewal , daagh ,GMATNinja ,egmat , other experts -- for option D , even if the of that follows and is removed , don't we need a comma after the word revolution since "known as the agrarian revolution" is an appositive -- so it needs to separated by commas on both sides and the subject is widespread changes in agriculture

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution , involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.
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18 Nov 2017, 00:57
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Skywalker.
I agree with regard to the comma issue. That is the reason B, as also with proper participial modification, is better than D. But the only thing is 'known as the agrarian revolution' is not an appositive but a past participle modifier. An appositive will be a noun that describes the widespread changes such as simply, 'an agrarian revolution'
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18 Nov 2017, 02:26
1
Skywalker18 wrote:
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and - not even a sentence as verb is missing

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - Correct

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - no verb for the main clause

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of - Parallelism issue

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of - no verb for the main verb for subject "widespread changes in agriculture"

mikemcgarry ,sayantanc2k , RonPurewal , daagh ,GMATNinja ,egmat , other experts -- for option D , even if the of that follows and is removed , don't we need a comma after the word revolution since "known as the agrarian revolution" is an appositive -- so it needs to separated by commas on both sides and the subject is widespread changes in agriculture

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution , involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

Daagh Sir has already pointed out that the modifier is not an appositive but a past participle. Just to complete the reply your query, the comma would still be required because the (past participle) modifier is a non-essential modifier.
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26 Dec 2017, 13:32
I agree that choice B is shorter by one word and thus more concise and thus superior that choice C, but I still think that choice C actually looks ok, I don't understand why everyone says it lacks a verb, just a second! It contains all the same words and verbs as B with an addition of which, which in my humble opinion does not distort meaning.
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26 Dec 2017, 14:25
1
Erjan_S wrote:
I agree that choice B is shorter by one word and thus more concise and thus superior that choice C, but I still think that choice C actually looks ok, I don't understand why everyone says it lacks a verb, just a second! It contains all the same words and verbs as B with an addition of which, which in my humble opinion does not distort meaning.

Hello Erjan_S,

Let's understand the structure of Choice C:

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution,
which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming
.

(Subject = blue, Verb = green)

As you can see in the above structure, the subject widespread changes does not have any verb. Hence, there is no independent clause per Choice C. And there cannot be a sentence without at least one independent clause.

It is true that Choice C has all the words Choice B. But the extra word which in Choice C acts as a subject and takes involved as its verb. This is the reason why the subject widespread changes is left with no verb.

Hope this helps.
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19 Feb 2018, 10:28
sayantanc2k wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

A. revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and - not even a sentence as verb is missing

B. revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - Correct

C. revolution, which involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and - no verb for the main clause

D. revolution involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of - Parallelism issue

E. revolution that involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and new farming techniques and crops, and of - no verb for the main verb for subject "widespread changes in agriculture"

mikemcgarry ,sayantanc2k , RonPurewal , daagh ,GMATNinja ,egmat , other experts -- for option D , even if the of that follows and is removed , don't we need a comma after the word revolution since "known as the agrarian revolution" is an appositive -- so it needs to separated by commas on both sides and the subject is widespread changes in agriculture

During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution , involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, new farming techniques and crops, and of the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

Daagh Sir has already pointed out that the modifier is not an appositive but a past participle. Just to complete the reply your query, the comma would still be required because the (past participle) modifier is a non-essential modifier.

@Ssayantanc2k, I understand that B is the best answer. But I have a query with the unnecessary useage of comma.
During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involved the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields and of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming. My question is why do we need a comma before and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming.

Here, we can see that the structure that needs to be parallel is the introduction of X & Y & the substitution of Z. (X- enclosed fields , Y- new farming techniques, z-he substitution of commercial for subsistence farming. )
the sentence includes 2 entities. Entity 1- Introduction of X and Y Entity 2- substitution of commercial for subsistence farming. So, when e are involving 2 elements, is the usage of comma fine?
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13 Mar 2018, 22:50
My Reasoning is somewhat different. Daagh, Mike, GMATNINZA Pls advice If this is right.

A is out as Involving (VerbIng) modifies preceding clause but here” widespread changes in agriculture” or known as the agrarian revolution is phrase not Clause. Therefore, we need to use VerbED modifier, Verb+ed before comma, modifies the preceding “Noun-PHRASE”. Here Involved should be used, which modifies “Changes”

Other than B no options have this structure. Hence “B” is the answer.
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13 Mar 2018, 23:30
sunny91 wrote:
Here, we can see that the structure that needs to be parallel is the introduction of X & Y & the substitution of Z. (X- enclosed fields , Y- new farming techniques, z-he substitution of commercial for subsistence farming. )

Hi sunny91, so the current parallelism is:

X & Y & the substitution of Z.

Notice how much easier it gets on the eye, if we introduce a comma:

X & Y, & the substitution of Z.

Now it is so much more apparent that X & Y occur together as a group, while the third element is separate.

Let's take an example:

Peter likes apples and oranges and loves farming.

The sentence just seems to be going on and on, with (seemingly) numerous usages of and, making the sentence very difficult to comprehend.

A better way sentence would be:

Peter likes apples and oranges, and loves farming.
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13 Mar 2018, 23:36
anuj04 wrote:
A is out as Involving (VerbIng) modifies preceding clause but here” widespread changes in agriculture” or known as the agrarian revolution is phrase not Clause. Therefore, we need to use VerbED modifier, Verb+ed before comma, modifies the preceding “Noun-PHRASE”. Here Involved should be used, which modifies “Changes”

Other than B no options have this structure. Hence “B” is the answer.

Hi anuj04, involved is not really used as modifier here, but as a simple past tense verb.

This is an important distinction and often a source of confusion. Hence, we encourage students to explicitly use the terms simple past tense and past participle.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Simple Past Tense Vs Past Participle, its application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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