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# During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2013, 22:24
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Similar topics on "During the past decade, the labor market in France has not" are merged.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2013, 04:39
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Lets Review:

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

So here we got our hit, "but instead" both, we need only one here. No check the options.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
Can be ignored

B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
after Instead, to what 'it' refers to confusing
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
Despite is not showing meaning.
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
we need some adjoining word in b/w principle and the hiring
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
no issues here.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2013, 08:38
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Manhattan forum says "B" is wrong because "instead" is an adverb. So the statement requires a semi colon rather than a comma.

However my understanding is that "Instead" is a conjuctive adverb. So why its wrong to use instead with a comma?

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2013, 16:29
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clause;conjunctive,clause
or
clause.conjunctive,clause

for further details pls go to:-

http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/parts ... verbs.html

BR//SuryaV

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2013, 08:16
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Fistail wrote:
Piter wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

a. principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
b. principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
c. principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
d. principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
e. principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

B. its one of the most difficult one but I go with B.

E is not parallel.

I also went with B because it gives the intended meaning and it is parallel. However, i feel there should be "," after "instead". Then, it should have ";" after "principles". Hence, may be B is not correct. E also seems parallel. "has been stifled" is parallel to "has not been operating". So, I am changing to E.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2013, 18:53
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karlfurt wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Good one;
I was confused between B AND E. Ok let clarify the sentence which was presented uses both But & Instead. For the second clause - needs to be contradictory in some way to use BUT. Since the second clause is supportive in reasoning the first clause; Insteat has to be used. Instead appear in two option choices B and E. Both seems to be correct. Now comes the role of sentence structure by close look you can delineate these similarities -operating according to, functioning through , restricting the. So need to find similar parallel structure sentence. I guess B miss this while perfectly uses to match the original clause. Hence choose E correct.

Hope this helps
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2013, 16:43
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I also had to choose between B and E, but I picked E, because the second part of the sentence starting with "instead" seemed to signal the beginning of a new thought, and I thought that it should be placed in an independent clause. Because it will be in an independent clause, it should separated with a conjunction or a semicolon.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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05 Aug 2014, 23:39
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According to Manhattan, OA is E.
But my choice was B as ';' is used between 2 independent sentences. Is E an independent sentence?
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2014, 01:41
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Can we have a verbal expert to pitch in and clarify, why B is wrong.

I am under the impression that instead is a conjunction, so a commas is rightly placed.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2014, 08:40
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scofield1521 wrote:
According to Manhattan, OA is E.
But my choice was B as ';' is used between 2 independent sentences. Is E an independent sentence?

Dear Scofield,

The later part of E, i.e instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers, is an independent clause. The correct way to judge whether a clause is an independent clause or not is to see, whether all alone, it makes any sense or not. The best way to do that is by using a full-stop, instead of the punctuation.

The second part does make sense and moreover, the presence of the word instead doesn't makes a clause dependent. The word instead just suggest that some topic is continued from the last sentence.

Thus B is incorrect and E is acceptable.

Hope this helps to resolve your query.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2014, 06:50
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iamba wrote:
OA is E

The original sentence is problematic in its use of the possessive pronoun “its.” The antecedent to “its” is the “labor market,” which incorrectly and illogically suggests that the labor market is somehow possessing or passing government regulations itself. In addition, the original sentence incorrectly uses active rather than passive voice to describe the effects imposed on the "labor market" by government regulations, thus illogically suggesting that the "labor market" itself is stifling functioning, rather than being stifled by other forces.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) This choice incorrectly uses a comma to connect two independent clauses, thus creating a run-on sentence. Two independent clauses must be connected either by a conjunction, such as “and” or “but,” or by a semicolon.

(C) This choice incorrectly uses “stifled” to modify the labor market itself, as opposed to its functioning. Also, “variously restrict” is awkward; various is used more appropriately to modify "government regulations," rather than the manner in which the regulations restrict worker hiring and firing.

(D) In order to properly use a semicolon, both the clause before and after the semicolon must be independent clauses or sentences, and the clauses must be closely related in meaning. In this choice, the underlined portion, though grammatically correct, does not stand alone as an effective independent clause. Also, the pronoun “its” lacks a clear antecedent.

(E) CORRECT. This answer choice correctly uses the semicolon to connect two independent but closely related clauses. In addition, the pronoun “its” clearly and unambiguously refers to the “labor market.”

How the second part of the sentence is independent ??

When you have no idea what instead is referring ???

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2014, 10:50
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Dear LS,

The instead in the second part of sentence is just continuing the topic from the last sentence.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2014, 12:43
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It's too long so there should be a break for two sentences also the second part should use past perfect, which renders only viable answer E.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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20 Oct 2014, 12:00
I join u guys in your opinions as I think its E.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2014, 10:36
karlfurt wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

A. The is no main verb in the clause after but ! Bone : , but instead X restricting Y. No verb!
B. and C are incorrect as second part after the comma is a clause and it has to be joined properly with first clause using ; or FANBOYS.
D. 'its' seems to be modifying Govt regulations?! + i find it awkward, even though its grammatically correct as reported.
E. Correct, two independent clauses joined by ; its is referring back to the Labor market and restricting the hiring and firing is correctly modifying Govt regulations.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2015, 12:09
karlfurt wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

The only problem i find with E is passive voice.
I am not totally convinced with E

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2015, 12:38
karlfurt wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

let's understand the meaning of the sentence:
the labor market in France has not been operating according to the free market principles
BUT introduces a new clause
instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

but instead - 2 contrasting words, using both of them are redundant. if we use but - then we have a fragment, since the part that comes after the conjunction doesn't have a verb.
if we use only instead, then we have a run-on sentence. 2 independent clauses are separated by a comma only.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
wrong as mentioned

B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
2 independent clauses are not properly connected.

C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
now the underlined portion is an ing modifier.
ing modifier can either modify the entire clause, or present result of the first clause.
neither of the functions of ing modifier is logical here.

D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
this choice changes the meaning. now the focus is on hiring and firing of workers and not on how the labor market is functioning.

E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
this choice correctly uses semi-colon.
its correctly refers to labor market.
the tense is correctly used, and parallel to the first IC.
restricting correctly modifies regulations

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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03 May 2015, 12:48
karlfurt wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

I have read this thread and think I understood why E is correct,
I think it should be "the hiring and firing of workers ARE restricted".
Am I right or I miss something?
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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29 May 2015, 07:01
karlfurt wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

I narrowed down to B and E.
b-"has been functioning" -no info what happened during last decade.
e-has been functioned-since last decade till now.correct

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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31 May 2015, 00:25
Between Choices B & E. I Choose E bcoz of following:

B) ......Has not been X, instead it has been Y

E) ......Has not been X; instead its Y

And E sounded more plausible to my ears.. is this a correct way to ?

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat   [#permalink] 31 May 2015, 00:25

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