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During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i

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During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2016, 03:15
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During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad infestation, discouraging many vacationers from visiting the area.

(A) suffered a massive toad infestation, discouraging

(B) suffered from a massive toad infestation and discouraged

(C) suffered a massive infestation of toads, which discouraged

(D) was suffering a massive infestation of toads and discouraging

(E) had suffered from a massive toad infestation and this discouraged

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During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2016, 07:14
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carcass wrote:
During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad infestation, discouraging many vacationers from visiting the area.

(A) suffered a massive toad infestation, discouraging

(B) suffered from a massive toad infestation and discouraged

(C) suffered a massive infestation of toads, which discouraged

(D) was suffering a massive infestation of toads and discouraging

(E) had suffered from a massive toad infestation and this discouraged



Let analyze the answers:
(A) suffered a massive toad infestation, discouraging--- What is discouraging the vacationers to visit the area? "Discouraging" is modifying the precedent clause: "the Outer Banks [u]suffered a massive toad infestation". So that the Outer Banks suffered a massive infestation is discouraging visitors.. Lets see the other options to asure there is no one better.

(B) suffered from a massive toad infestation and discouraged--- Looks like the Outer Banks are discouraging the vacationers. Incorrect.

(C) suffered a massive infestation of toads, which discouraged--- Which is referring back to "massive infestation" not to toads, since it is a prepositional phrase referring to massive infestation. So massive infestation could discouraged vacationers? This could be right..
This answer choice says "infestation of toads" whereas is more correct "toad infestation". Even though I would say this is the correct option because which refers backs correctly to what is discouraging vacationers to visit the area.

(D) was suffering a massive infestation of toads and discouraging. This verbal time is used when one action is ongoing until another action happens. No need. Incorrect.

(E) had suffered from a massive toad infestation and this discouraged. This verbal time (past perfect) is unnecessary since there is no need of sequence several actions in the past. Incorrect.
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Re: During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2016, 07:17
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(A) suffered a massive toad infestation, discouraging - Incorrect - massive toad infestation discouraged vacationers. The subject in the previous clause is outer banks. So this option seems to suggest that Outer banks suffered and this suffering discouraged vacationers. This is incorrect.

(B) suffered from a massive toad infestation and discouraged - Incorrect - Option suggests that Outerbanks suffered X and discouraged Y. This is not correct.

(C) suffered a massive infestation of toads, which discouraged - Correct - Here which refers to infestation of toads and this is what we are looking for.

(D) was suffering a massive infestation of toads and discouraging - Incorrect - Tense error + Awkward construction

(E) had suffered from a massive toad infestation and this discouraged - Incorrect - No need to use past perfect tense here.

IMO answer is C.
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During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2016, 12:52
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Well the question is a bit tricky, already under normal condition. During the exam pressure, the question could be very dangerous if you not analyze very very carefully.

As such, D and E are clearly wrong because we are in 2002 so the tense was suffering and had suffered are inappropriate.

A is a good option but as Vyshak pointed out it has two main problems : using discouraging we do not really know if it is due by the bank or the infestation. Moreover, massive infestation of toads is much better than the way around because in the second case is not crystal clear if massive refers to infestation or toads.

Hence, the answer is C.

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Re: During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2016, 22:13
no, the answer must be A, not C

we do not need to show which kind of infestation , we need to show a resule of first action. so, A is correct
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Re: During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2016, 01:33
A should be the correct answer.
As MGMAT SC guide puts it "Use WHICH only to refer to the noun immediately preceding it—never to refer to an entire clause". It is not the toads that have discouraged the tourists. The massive infestation due to which banks have suffered discouraged tourist. We need to refer the entire clause and hence verb -ing is best available option.
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Re: During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2016, 02:17
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nishith17 wrote:
A should be the correct answer.
As MGMAT SC guide puts it "Use WHICH only to refer to the noun immediately preceding it—never to refer to an entire clause". It is not the toads that have discouraged the tourists. The massive infestation due to which banks have suffered discouraged tourist. We need to refer the entire clause and hence verb -ing is best available option.


The red part is also wrong.

Back to the question, we do not need at all to referring to the entire precedent clause. The bank suffered something and is THAT something that discouraged the vacationers, NOT the bank. Infact, at the end of the sentence is clearly stated that the ENTIRE area was not visited.

Moreover, if you use discouraging , it seems that the discouragement still persists over time, and this is not our intent to convey. I remember you that the sentence and the action related to it is completely in the past. As such, we need a past tense in the simple form.

Hope this helps
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Re: During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2016, 08:47
tough one...I too was left between A and C. picked A...I believe that the result was the discouragement - a perfectly fine meaning, but I don't see C as a wrong one either...
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During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2018, 10:11
carcass wrote:
During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad infestation, discouraging many vacationers from visiting the area.

(A) suffered a massive toad infestation, discouraging

(B) suffered from a massive toad infestation and discouraged

(C) suffered a massive infestation of toads, which discouraged

(D) was suffering a massive infestation of toads and discouraging

(E) had suffered from a massive toad infestation and this discouraged


Just agreeing with the other users here. The act of having suffered a massive toad infestation has discouraged tourists, and not the toad infestation itself. I feel that the subtle meaning difference makes it unfit as an answer choice. As per the GMAT, although in some cases meaning is up for interpretation, I think it is encouraged to stay as close in meaning to the original sentence as possible, making A a better choice.
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During the summer of 2002, the Outer Banks suffered a massive toad i &nbs [#permalink] 11 Sep 2018, 10:11
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