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# A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors

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Manager
Joined: 17 Aug 2008
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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2009, 23:48
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80% (01:35) correct 20% (01:15) wrong based on 171 sessions

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A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Fight between A and E... can anyone clarify....???
25. A recent study of ancient clay deposits has provided new evidence supporting the theory of global forest fires ignited by a meteorite impact that contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other creatures some 65 million years ago.
(A) supporting the theory of global forest fires ignited by a meteorite impact that
(B) supporting the theory that global forest fires ignited by a meteorite impact
(C) that supports the theory of global forest fires that were ignited by a meteorite impact and that
(D) in support of the theory that global forest fires were ignited by a meteorite impact and that
(E) of support for the theory of a meteorite impact that ignited global forest fires and
I choose D...plz clarify your choice???
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2009, 00:18
24. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

E would be the right answer because of correct use of verb tense.
Sentences which describe an event that has happened in near past will almost invariably tend to use present perfect. ( recently in this case)
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2009, 01:32
1
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24. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
[using past perfect is not correct as the first part of a sentence uses present perfect, which implies that the action should have connection with present; early retirement-noun and face-verb are not parallel]
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face [correct]

25. A recent study of ancient clay deposits has provided new evidence supporting the theory of global forest fires ignited by a meteorite impact that contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs and many other creatures some 65 million years ago.
(A) supporting the theory of global forest fires ignited by a meteorite impact that
[pronoun reference is not correct-here that refers to a meteriote impact. In fact the cause of extinction of the dinosaurs... are forest fires ]
(B) supporting the theory that global forest fires ignited by a meteorite impact [correct]
(C) that supports the theory of global forest fires that were ignited by a meteorite impact and that
(D) in support of the theory that global forest fires were ignited by a meteorite impact and that [I think it's not clear to what 'that' refers here]
(E) of support for the theory of a meteorite impact that ignited global forest fires and
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27 May 2012, 10:10
could some one explain why you think the action in this sentence is continuing to the present? The first part of the sentence is "recent study has found that within the past few years".

Since the study is confined to the few years in the past, does it make sense to say had decided. Because there actions (doctor's decisions) occurred in a period before the study was conducted?
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04 Jun 2012, 08:04
Within can be used in the following ways:
as a preposition (followed by a noun): Can you complete the work within a month?
as an adverb (without a following noun): As Helen approached the front door, she could hear a telephone ringing within.

Inside a period of time
a.
before the end of a period of time
We expect an announcement within the next 24 hours.
The military government has promised to hold free and fair elections within six months.
Thesaurus entry for this meaning of within
b.
during a particular period of time
Within the past few weeks, 215 people have been arrested.
Within living memory these mountains were the home of the brown bear.
Thesaurus entry for this meaning of within
c.
used for saying how soon one thing happens after another
We arrived within two minutes of each other.
Seventy per cent of patients die within a year of becoming infected with the virus.
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A recent study found that casual, unregulated fishermen are [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2012, 21:57
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A recent study found that casual, unregulated fishermen are catching a substantial number of overfished species, and even "catch-and-release" fishermen contribute to the problem since released fish are often stunned from the sudden cutoff of oxygen and thus, become easy prey after their release.

A. substantial number of overfished species, and
B. substantial number of overfished species, and then
C. substantial number of overfished species, and that
D. majority of overfished species, as
E. majority of overfished species, and that
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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26 Jun 2012, 20:45
Maulikgmat wrote:
[Reveal] Spoiler:
24. e 25.B

24. A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

Hi,

I am confused between (D) & (E), could anyone please explain?

Regards,
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2012, 07:58
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Hi,

I am confused between (D) & (E), could anyone please explain?

Regards,

Hi there,

This is the sentence with choice D:

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors have elected to retire early rather than facing the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

The original sentence means that according to a recent study, in the last few years many doctors have chosen to do X rather than Y. Here, X and Y should be parallel. Per this choice (D),
X = to retire early
Y = facing the threats of…
These two entities are not parallel because X is “to verb” while Y is written in verb-ing form. Hence, we have parallelism error in this sentence.

Choice E corrects this error. This is the sentence with choice E:

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors have elected to retire early rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

X = to retire early
Y = (to) face the threats of…
The two entities are parallel here, and hence choice E is the correct answer.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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06 Dec 2012, 13:59
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Expert's post
Sachin9 wrote:

1) When do we know that 'to' and be understood and can be omitted?
I eliminated E because I thought 2 structures are not parallel because you dont have a 'to' before face

2) What is wrong with C
retiring and facing are parallel.

Hi Sachin,

Whenever we have a list, the common items in the first entity of the list may not be repeated before all the entities in the list. OG questions are inundated with such parallel construction. For example the first question of OGV2:

Like ants, termites have an elaborate social structure in which a few individuals reproduce and the rest serve the colony by tending juveniles, gathering food, building the nest, or battling intruders.

This is the sentence with correct answer choice E. Notice the entities in the sub-list. Termites serve the colony by:
a. tending juveniles,
b. gathering food,
c. building the nest, or
d. battling intruders.

In the sentence, only the first entity is preceded by “by”. It is understood before other entities. This is a very common structure. Here comes the need to identify the correct entities that are intended to make the correct intended parallel list. Try out this official question:

The computer software being designed for a project studying Native American access to higher education will not only meet the needs of that study, but also has the versatility and power of facilitating similar research endeavors.

(A) but also has the versatility and power of facilitating
(B) but also have the versatility and power to facilitate
C) but it also has the versatility and power to facilitate
(D) and also have the versatility and power of facilitating
(E) and it also has such versatility and power that it can facilitate

Now let’s analyze, why choice C is incorrect.

C) have elected retiring early instead of facing: Notice the use of “elected” here. The way it has been used in this choice and the original sentence as well, it seems to suggest that the doctors have cast their votes for an entity named “retiring” instead of another entity “facing”. This is the incorrect use of the word. The intended meaning is that they have elected to – chose to – do one thing rather than the other. This incorrect use of “elected” makes this choice incorrect.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2013, 04:24
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Tip : Usage of "Rather than" means preference of one over another and Usage of "instead of" means replacing one thing with another.Moreover instead of can only be used in case of Noun and verbs or actions so in below only

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face --- no two actions are there so usage of had not correct.
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing --- Out instead of is used
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing --- to retire not parallel with facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face --- correct construction.

had to think between A and E which one is better got confused went with the gut feeling more then logical approach
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2013, 05:14
http://www.beatthegmat.com/og-verbal-re ... 73222.html

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/rat ... t1177.html
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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04 Oct 2013, 21:31
Sentence is in the present tense the non underlined portion so he underline portion has to be in the present tense too .

Doctors is the subject of the sentence hence "have" is the verb .
C,D,E are in the race .

Rather than is a parallel marker hence
X rather than Y

"To retire rather than to face" .. would have to be the underlined part ..

Since to can be omitted "To retire than face" is correct hence E is the answer ..
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Re: A recent study found that casual, unregulated fishermen are [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2016, 07:49
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2016, 09:43
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2016, 18:00
Split1) Verb. Rule that when you use "have elected + To verb + to verb". This is why A, B, C and D are out

Split2) Parallelism "have elected + to retire + face" . In the second, it is implied in face that there is a "to+face" in front of it.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 13:41
Expert's post
1
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Celestial09 wrote:
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit

"Instead of" can be used only for nouns; "rather than" can be used for nouns or verbs. Here "retiring" and "facing" are gerunds (i.e. nouns), and hence both "instead of" and "rather than" are acceptable.

The problem with C is the incorrect idiom elect + gerund (verb-ing) . The correct idiom is elect + infinitive (to -verb).
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2016, 22:47
sayantanc2k wrote:
Celestial09 wrote:
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit

"Instead of" can be used only for nouns; "rather than" can be used for nouns or verbs. Here "retiring" and "facing" are gerunds (i.e. nouns), and hence both "instead of" and "rather than" are acceptable.

The problem with C is the incorrect idiom elect + gerund (verb-ing) . The correct idiom is elect + infinitive (to -verb).

Can we mark E on the grounds that since phrase after "rather than" marks present tense so the verb should be in simple form?

Construction for Present Tense:

would rather <verb in simple form> than <verb in simple form>
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2016, 04:33
warriorguy wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Celestial09 wrote:
Hi
An OG question, so it calls for an analysis, calling all experts please. Daagh chetan4u egmat magoosh veritas plz
Kindly explain what's wrong with C
Thanks

Posted from GMAT ToolKit

"Instead of" can be used only for nouns; "rather than" can be used for nouns or verbs. Here "retiring" and "facing" are gerunds (i.e. nouns), and hence both "instead of" and "rather than" are acceptable.

The problem with C is the incorrect idiom elect + gerund (verb-ing) . The correct idiom is elect + infinitive (to -verb).

Can we mark E on the grounds that since phrase after "rather than" marks present tense so the verb should be in simple form?

Construction for Present Tense:

would rather <verb in simple form> than <verb in simple form>

I am not sure what you mean by simple form - do you mean simple present?
Please note that in option E, the parallelism is between two infinitives (not between two verbs in simple present tense): to retire and to face - it is alright to omit "to" in the second element. ...to retire rather than to face....
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years, [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2016, 10:08
Hi avaneeshvyas, parallelism is all about the intended meaning. Hopefully it is clear that many Doctors have elected to <X> over <Y>. So, <X> and <Y> are the two parallel elements.

<X> = retire early
<Y> = face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance

Here's the thing. While X and Y need to be parallel, there is another level of parallelism going on within Y:

face <Y1> and <Y2>.

<Y1> = the threats of lawsuits
<Y2> = the rising costs of malpractice insurance

To summarize, there are two different parallel structures here:

i) <X> needs to be parallel to <Y> (and that's indeed the case: retire and face)

ii) <Y1> needs to be parallel to <Y2> (again, that's the case: the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance are both Noun phrases)

Hopefully it is now clear that the rising costs of malpractice insurance does not need to be parallel to to retire early, simply because these two are part of different parallel structures.
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Re: A recent study has found that within the past few years,   [#permalink] 19 Dec 2016, 10:08
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