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# Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caus

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Intern
Joined: 17 May 2016
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Concentration: Economics, Operations

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31 Dec 2018, 02:28
Can some one explain me How "Caused" and "and failed" are not logically Parallel.
Would it be something like this :
Early Decisions also failed to make ......
Please correct if i am wrong .
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31 Dec 2018, 14:44
1
Piggu18 Two reasons:

1) The verb doesn't match the subject. Decisions can't fail. People failed because of the decisions.

2) Even if we wanted to match "failed" with "decisions," we'd still need to close out the parallel list first. We can't say "Decisions CAUSED x, y, z, and failed." We need "Decisions CAUSED x, y, and z, AND FAILED."
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Updated on: 29 Jan 2019, 01:16
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 293

Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

(A) the collapse of the currency system, and failed
(B) the collapse of the currency system, and failing
(C) and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
(D) the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
(E) and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

Hi

The decisions have failed to make investments in infrastructure.
This sentence is incorrect because it doesnot make sense. Decisions cannot fail. Administration/person can.

The decisions have caused a failure to make investments in infrastructure.
If the above is not logical, why is this sentence correct?
how could decision cause a failure.
This is option E of the above question.

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Originally posted by nitesh50 on 29 Jan 2019, 01:04.
Last edited by nitesh50 on 29 Jan 2019, 01:16, edited 2 times in total.
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29 Jan 2019, 01:14
nitesh50 wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 293

Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

(A) the collapse of the currency system, and failed
(B) the collapse of the currency system, and failing
(C) and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
(D) the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
(E) and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

The decisions have failed to make investments in infrastructure.
This sentence is incorrect because it doesnot make sense. Decisions cannot fail. Administration/person can.

The decisions have caused a failure to make investments in infrastructure.
If the above is not logical, why is this sentence correct?
how could decision cause a failure.
This is option E of the above question.

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Hi nitesh50
You are right that decisions can't fail, but they definitely can cause a failure.
This is what E tells us.
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29 Jan 2019, 01:38
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Hi, maybe is me but I do not consider this a 700 level.

A bit of common sense (which must be kept always by the student during the examination of a question and mainly the reason is the following: these questions are there to test your skills, true. However, they also reflect what is the grammar, the style that evolves in the real world) should suggest you:

Today I washed the car and did chores, as well as I went to the dentist. Lot of stuff

Reading the question piece by piece

Early administrative (just a description) decisions (key point) in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually (inthe end) caused a drastic fall

1) first point: tax revenues,

2) second point: a reduction in military preparedness,

3) third point: and the collapse of the currency system,

4) as well as a failure: the fourth point which is positioned on the same level of importance of the first three.

I do not even spend the time to analyze the options A-B-C. At most to D just of being sure.

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29 Jan 2019, 10:25
Top Contributor
nitesh50 wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 293

Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

(A) the collapse of the currency system, and failed
(B) the collapse of the currency system, and failing
(C) and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
(D) the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
(E) and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

Hi

The decisions have failed to make investments in infrastructure.
This sentence is incorrect because it doesnot make sense. Decisions cannot fail. Administration/person can.

The decisions have caused a failure to make investments in infrastructure.
If the above is not logical, why is this sentence correct?
how could decision cause a failure.
This is option E of the above question.

GMATNinja
VeritasPrepBrian
DmitryFarber
chetan2u
egmat
DavidTutorexamPAL
carcass

Notice that pretty huge difference between the examples you gave. "The decisions have failed to make investments" --> "to make investments" is an active verb. Someone has to make those investments, and decisions cannot actively do that - the decision makers can, but not the decisions.

"The decisions caused a failure" --> that's expressing a cause/effect relationship, which isn't necessarily an active verb situation. "My untied shoelace caused me to trip" doesn't mean that the shoelace actively, consciously tripped me, but I did trip as a result of the shoelace. Just like the failures happened as a result of the decisions, even though the decisions weren't actively choosing the failures (the way that the other option suggests that they were actively making investments).
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13 Aug 2019, 14:50
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 293

Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

(A) the collapse of the currency system, and failed
(B) the collapse of the currency system, and failing
(C) and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
(D) the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
(E) and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

Great question with a lot of complex stuff going on. A (somewhat?) effective hack for me esp with tough SC questions is to sort of really focus on what the main subject of the sentence is and take it from there. Often a lot of words are added to confuse us in to forgetting the basics. This was my thought process for this question:

The non-underlined portion is talking about the early DECISIONS taken by Ming Dynasty administrators, its a little subtle I guess but all the elements of the list, the fall in tax revenues, collapse of currency, etc. have been directly caused by the .... DECISIONS

Now you'll see why I am emphasizing this point, the phrase "administrative decisions" (actually administrative is modifying decisions here if you want to be picky) is the subject of the sentence. What ever is happening is "caused" by decisions. Some POE explanations might make this point a little clearer:

(A) the collapse of the currency system, and failed - "Early administrative decisions of the Ming Dynasty....failed to make sufficient investment"? Decisions can't fail to do anything. Decisions don't do anything themselves or you could say they are not the noun that performs the action. Eliminate.
(B) the collapse of the currency system, and failing - Again, the decisions are failing to do something? That is not possible, the decisions can fail in achieving something, but decisions can not logically perform an action. Eliminate
(C) and the collapse of the currency system, also failed - "decisions also failed" same problem, decision cannot fail in of itself, Eliminate.
(D) the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing - "the decisions....(were) failing!?" that is nonsensical, refer to above reasoning please. Eliminate.
(E) and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure - much better, decisions cannot perform an action but they can be deemed to be failure. In this case the decisions led to a failure of adequate infrastructure investment and that makes total sense.

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02 Oct 2019, 21:22
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 293

Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

(A) the collapse of the currency system, and failed
(B) the collapse of the currency system, and failing
(C) and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
(D) the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
(E) and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

Obvious error: Clear parallelism case. it needs to be failure

B: Not parallel. Rejected
C: Not parallel. Rejected
D: Not parallel. Rejected
E: parallel. Corrects the error
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10 Jan 2020, 09:33
Pure parallelism.

When we first read the sentence, we are expecting to have a list of 4 action nouns (a fall, a reduction, the collapse, and X) , and we expect to have "the failure" as the last element of the list. However, they don't give us that option. So, we must work our way around it, checking the parallelism of the list in each of the answer choices.

(A) the collapse of the currency system, and failed --- "failed" is either a verb in the past tense or an adjective (past participle). In either case it is not parallel to a list of action nouns.

(B) the collapse of the currency system, and failing --- "failing", a present participle, cannot be parallel to a list of action nouns.

(C) and the collapse of the currency system, also failed ---- "also" is not a parallel marker. It does not link the word "failed" to any other part of the sentence.

(D) the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing --- " as well as" is a parallel marker, similar to "and". However, "failing", a present participle, cannot be parallel to a list of action nouns.

(E) and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure --- " as well as" is a parallel marker, similar to "and". "a failure" is an action noun, and it is therefore parallel to the other 3 action nouns. CORRECT
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12 Jan 2020, 09:30
what someone please explain what is "a failure" referring to? "Early decisions"? What would be the root phrase for "a failure"?
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15 Mar 2020, 08:06
Got the approx same question in Real GMAT .

All items in the list must be noun .
And & As well as are not a factor to count up on .

except E all have either noun...and verb or noun....participle ( verbal )

Only E is choice .
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23 Mar 2020, 02:52
there is one point to learn
we have to say
A and B as well as C. choice E proves this point
we can not say
A , B , as well as C.

we can say
A , B and C

so, "as well as" is different from "and". "and" can go with 3 items. but "as well as" can not go with 3 item.
we use "as well as" for only 2 group, and if the first group contain many items, we add "and"
this difference can be caused by the meaning of the "as well as" , which mean 'in addition to".

this is a hard point which is hard to remember . this makes us find hard to eliminate choice D. but gmat offer us "failing" in choice D. why use "failing" why "failure " can be used.

doing focus on process while noun focus on fact. but we do not know this point, just remember that noun is prefered over doing when the split doing/noun appear.

so, choice D contain another error, failing, other than "and, as well as" .
Re: Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caus   [#permalink] 23 Mar 2020, 02:52

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