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Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caus

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14 Jun 2017, 08:34
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The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 293

Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

(A) the collapse of the currency system, and failed
(B) the collapse of the currency system, and failing
(C) and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
(D) the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
(E) and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure
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14 Jun 2017, 10:38
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AbdurRakib wrote:
Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

A. the collapse of the currency system, and failed
B. the collapse of the currency system, and failing
C. and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
D. the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
E. and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

Dear AbdurRakib,

I'm happy to respond.

We have four elements
1) a drastic fall in tax revenues = fixed, before the underline
2) a reduction in military preparedness = fixed, before the underline
3) some form of "the collapse of the currency system"
4) something about failing "to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure"

The prompt has
[noun], [noun], [noun], and [verb] = an obvious failure of parallelism

Correct possibilities:
1) We could have parallelism with three nouns and then have a verb after it:
[noun], [noun], and [noun], and [verb]
That verb would be parallel to the first verb, so the parallelism of the nouns would be nested inside the parallelism of the verbs.

2) We could have four nouns
[noun], [noun], [noun], and [noun],

3) We could have three nouns in parallel and than an additive phrase
[noun], [noun], and [noun], as well as [noun]
Choice (E) does this. This is the only choice that does something correct.

OA = (E)

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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17 Aug 2017, 10:00
6
How can we be so sure that answer A) is incorrect? I was thinking of the following parallelism:

i) Decisions caused:
- noun
- noun
- noun

,and failed to make

Is this infeasible because of the 'to make' and especially the 'to', which would ne parallelism?
General Discussion
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04 Aug 2017, 09:08
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CorporateFinancier wrote:
Hi, could you please clarify 2 things:

1) Why "failing" couldn't be considered as a noun? Or if we want to use it as a noun, then we need an article?
2) Isn't the use of both "and" and "as well as" in option E redundant? I would be much better to eliminate "and" in this case, in my view.

I chose D instead of E because of these 2 considerations.

Thanks.

Dear CorporateFinancier,

I'm happy to respond.

1) First of all, let's use the proper terminology. When a verb form ending in -ing is used as a noun, this is called a gerund. Just "failing" by itself is a simple gerund. When we add an article, "the failing," then it becomes a complex gerund. As a general rule, we put only complex gerunds in parallel with ordinary nouns, not simple gerunds. Furthermore, there is something incredibly awkward about using a complex gerund form when there's a very clear ordinary noun form of the same word. We wouldn't say "the failing of X" because we can say "the failure of X."

2) The use of "and" and "as well as" in (E) is not redundant, because there's a subtle distinction at work here--it's not pure parallelism. When we say "both P and Q as well as R," we are putting P & Q at the same level, side-by-side, but we are saying that somehow R is a slightly different thing, not quite the equivalent of P & Q. In this sentence we have
Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused
(P1) a drastic fall in tax revenues,
(P2) a reduction in military preparedness,
and

(P3) the collapse of the currency system,
(additional) as well as a failure to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.
The three elements in parallel, P1, P2, and P3, were all immediate and pressing problems that the early Ming Dynasty had to face. The addition item is something that might not have seemed immediate and pressing at the time, but later evolved into a big problem, as infrastructural debt became to mount. Because of the different moments in time when these played out, the author logically separated out this additional element to distinguish it.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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17 Aug 2017, 14:05
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Vezax27 wrote:
How can we be so sure that answer A) is incorrect? I was thinking of the following parallelism:

i) Decisions caused:
- noun
- noun
- noun

,and failed to make

Is this infeasible because of the 'to make' and especially the 'to', which would ne parallelism?

Dear Vezax27,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, the problem with this interpretation is that, for the three nouns in parallel, we would need an additional "and" before the third noun. We would need
Decision caused:
Noun #1
Noun #2
and
Noun #3
and failed to make . . . .

The "and" already in (A) is for the parallelism between the two verbs, "caused" & "failed." The second "and" would have to be added for the parallelism of the three nouns.

Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, and the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)
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25 Sep 2017, 07:51
4
For A

In this case, we would have grammatical parallelism, but not logical parallelism, correct? With your changes, if I get rid of all the fluff, the sentence would say “Decisions caused...” and “Decisions failed to make sufficient investment”. The second part is illogical, right? Decisions can’t make investments.
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25 Sep 2017, 10:24
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PurpleDrank3000 wrote:
For A

In this case, we would have grammatical parallelism, but not logical parallelism, correct? With your changes, if I get rid of all the fluff, the sentence would say “Decisions caused...” and “Decisions failed to make sufficient investment”. The second part is illogical, right? Decisions can’t make investments.

Hello PurpleDrank3000,

I must say you have done a brilliant analysis of Choice A with regards to the parallelism between caused and failed.

Your meaning-based analysis is absolutely correct. Even of we add and before the third noun entity the collapse of the currency system, then also the choice will remain incorrect because decisions cannot make investments.

So yes, as rightly pointed out by you, caused and failed are can be grammatically parallel, but they cannot be logically parallel in the given context of this official sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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26 Sep 2017, 00:49
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ankitmining wrote:
egmat

How to eliminate C? Is it because of the same reasoning mentioned above.

Regards
-Ankit

Hello Ankit ankitmining,

Thank you for you query.

Choice C is incorrect because although the three nouns are parallel and connected properly by the marker and, the verb failed that is supposed to be parallel to the verb caused is not connected with caused by any connector.

The verb failed is preceded by also that is not a connector. And there can be no parallel list without a marker.

Take a look at the following structure per Choice C:

Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused

a drastic fall in tax revenues,
a reduction in military preparedness, and
the collapse of the currency system,

also failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

However, the fact remains that logically failed CANNOT be parallel to caused because decisions cannot make investments. Hence, use of verb failed is incorrect in the context of this sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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31 Dec 2018, 14:44
1
Piggu18 Two reasons:

1) The verb doesn't match the subject. Decisions can't fail. People failed because of the decisions.

2) Even if we wanted to match "failed" with "decisions," we'd still need to close out the parallel list first. We can't say "Decisions CAUSED x, y, z, and failed." We need "Decisions CAUSED x, y, and z, AND FAILED."
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04 Aug 2017, 08:04
Hi, could you please clarify 2 things:

1) Why "failing" couldn't be considered as a noun? Or if we want to use it as a noun, then we need an article?
2) Isn't the use of both "and" and "as well as" in option E redundant? I would be much better to eliminate "and" in this case, in my view.

I chose D instead of E because of these 2 considerations.

Thanks.

mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

A. the collapse of the currency system, and failed
B. the collapse of the currency system, and failing
C. and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
D. the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
E. and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

Dear AbdurRakib,

I'm happy to respond.

We have four elements
1) a drastic fall in tax revenues = fixed, before the underline
2) a reduction in military preparedness = fixed, before the underline
3) some form of "the collapse of the currency system"
4) something about failing "to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure"

The prompt has
[noun], [noun], [noun], and [verb] = an obvious failure of parallelism

Correct possibilities:
1) We could have parallelism with three nouns and then have a verb after it:
[noun], [noun], and [noun], and [verb]
That verb would be parallel to the first verb, so the parallelism of the nouns would be nested inside the parallelism of the verbs.

2) We could have four nouns
[noun], [noun], [noun], and [noun],

3) We could have three nouns in parallel and than an additive phrase
[noun], [noun], and [noun], as well as [noun]
Choice (E) does this. This is the only choice that does something correct.

OA = (E)

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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16 Aug 2017, 04:04
1
mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

A. the collapse of the currency system, and failed
B. the collapse of the currency system, and failing
C. and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
D. the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
E. and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

Dear AbdurRakib,

I'm happy to respond.

We have four elements
1) a drastic fall in tax revenues = fixed, before the underline
2) a reduction in military preparedness = fixed, before the underline
3) some form of "the collapse of the currency system"
4) something about failing "to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure"

The prompt has
[noun], [noun], [noun], and [verb] = an obvious failure of parallelism

Correct possibilities:
1) We could have parallelism with three nouns and then have a verb after it:
[noun], [noun], and [noun], and [verb]
That verb would be parallel to the first verb, so the parallelism of the nouns would be nested inside the parallelism of the verbs.

2) We could have four nouns
[noun], [noun], [noun], and [noun],

3) We could have three nouns in parallel and than an additive phrase
[noun], [noun], and [noun], as well as [noun]
Choice (E) does this. This is the only choice that does something correct.

OA = (E)

Does all this make sense?
Mike

You are awesome..Thanks very nicely explained
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17 Aug 2017, 10:27
1
mikemcgarry wrote:
CorporateFinancier wrote:
Hi, could you please clarify 2 things:

1) Why "failing" couldn't be considered as a noun? Or if we want to use it as a noun, then we need an article?
2) Isn't the use of both "and" and "as well as" in option E redundant? I would be much better to eliminate "and" in this case, in my view.

I chose D instead of E because of these 2 considerations.

Thanks.

Dear CorporateFinancier,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

1) First of all, let's use the proper terminology. When a verb form ending in -ing is used as a noun, this is called a gerund. Just "failing" by itself is a simple gerund. When we add an article, "the failing," then it becomes a complex gerund. As a general rule, we put only complex gerunds in parallel with ordinary nouns, not simple gerunds. Furthermore, there is something incredibly awkward about using a complex gerund form when there's a very clear ordinary noun form of the same word. We wouldn't say "the failing of X" because we can say "the failure of X."

2) The use of "and" and "as well as" in (E) is not redundant, because there's a subtle distinction at work here--it's not pure parallelism. When we say "both P and Q as well as R," we are putting P & Q at the same level, side-by-side, but we are saying that somehow R is a slightly different thing, not quite the equivalent of P & Q. In this sentence we have
Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused
(P1) a drastic fall in tax revenues,
(P2) a reduction in military preparedness,
and

(P3) the collapse of the currency system,
(additional) as well as a failure to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.
The three elements in parallel, P1, P2, and P3, were all immediate and pressing problems that the early Ming Dynasty had to face. The addition item is something that might not have seemed immediate and pressing at the time, but later evolved into a big problem, as infrastructural debt became to mount. Because of the different moments in time when these played out, the author logically separated out this additional element to distinguish it.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)

I am a big fan of your explanations Mike !!!![SMILING FACE WITH OPEN MOUTH]

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25 Sep 2017, 13:48
egmat

How to eliminate C? Is it because of the same reasoning mentioned above.

Regards
-Ankit
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26 Sep 2017, 05:29
AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 293

Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

A. the collapse of the currency system, and failed
B. the collapse of the currency system, and failing
C. and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
D. the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
E. and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

Option A-Parallelism issue....Early administrative decisions.............caused A,B,C and failed which is wrong(in place of failed we require action noun failure)
Option B-parallelism.....caused and failing not parallel
Option C-same problem as in b
Option D-parallelism issue same as above options
Option E-Winner
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03 Oct 2017, 07:39
What a beautiful question.

Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

We need a "and" before "the collapse", because the decisions caused 3 things "fall", "reduction" and"collapse". We never say that "At the party John ate, danced, kissed"; we need a "and" before the final thing that John did at the party. The correct version would be "At the party John ate, danced and kissed".
So as per the aforesaid statements, A, B and D are out. (P.S. note the usage of "and" before D in this line)

Now obviously out of C and E, E is the correct answer because in "C" we again need a connecting "and" before "also".

"Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure." -->This version of sentence is absolutely correct.

A. the collapse of the currency system, and failed
B. the collapse of the currency system, and failing
C. and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
D. the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
E. and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure
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09 May 2018, 07:59
mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

A. the collapse of the currency system, and failed
B. the collapse of the currency system, and failing
C. and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
D. the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
E. and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

Dear AbdurRakib,

I'm happy to respond.

We have four elements
1) a drastic fall in tax revenues = fixed, before the underline
2) a reduction in military preparedness = fixed, before the underline
3) some form of "the collapse of the currency system"
4) something about failing "to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure"

The prompt has
[noun], [noun], [noun], and [verb] = an obvious failure of parallelism

Correct possibilities:
1) We could have parallelism with three nouns and then have a verb after it:
[noun], [noun], and [noun], and [verb]
That verb would be parallel to the first verb, so the parallelism of the nouns would be nested inside the parallelism of the verbs.

2) We could have four nouns
[noun], [noun], [noun], and [noun],

3) We could have three nouns in parallel and than an additive phrase
[noun], [noun], and [noun], as well as [noun]
Choice (E) does this. This is the only choice that does something correct.

OA = (E)

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Hi mikee, I have one doubt.
If the sentence would have been as below, can we say it is right?
----Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness,and the collapse of the currency system, as well as failingto make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

I got some reference here:-
https://www.thefreedictionary.com/as+well+as
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06 Oct 2018, 00:58
Quote:
Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caused a drastic fall in tax revenues, a reduction in military preparedness, the collapse of the currency system, and failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure.

Sentence analysis: Early administrative decisions in China's Ming Dynasty eventually cased: a couple of things
1. a drastic fall in tax revenues (noun modifier, as drastic is an adjective and can modify only a noun/pronoun)
2. a reduction in military preparedness (noun modifier)
3. the collapse of the currency system (noun modifier starts with "the collapse")
4. failed to make sufficient investment in vital transportation infrastructure (failed, is not a noun rather a verb here)

All these pieces need to be in parallel to each other. Right now 3 are parallel being the noun modifiers, but we need to make all 4 of them parallel.
2 out of 4 are in the non underlined portion hence we need to see where we find the noun modifiers in the underlined portion.

"and" is the parallel marker in the main sentence, but the parallelism isn't proper because of the analysis mentioned above.

Quote:
(A) the collapse of the currency system, and failed
This goes out because of the reason mentioned above.
Quote:
(B) the collapse of the currency system, and failing
"and" the parallel marker is followed by the a present participle, but we need a noun modifier.
+ing isn't even acting as a gerund (noun form of +ing) here. Hence this option goes out.
Quote:
(C) and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
also is not even a parallel marker, but the 4 things need to be separated using a parallel marker. Hence this does seems awkward. Hence this sentence doesn't make me a fan of how it separates the 4 parallel phrases.
In addition to that "failed" is a past participle, hence doesn't gel up in the party of noun modifiers.
C goes out.
Quote:
(D) the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
This is similar to B, may be equally weird, I won't comment on the "as well as" , or "and" as a separator, but the failing has the same parallelism issue as in B. Goes Out
Quote:
(E) and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure
E is the party pooper here. with failure as a noun. Hence making all the 4 pieces parallel to each other.
E is the best answer option.
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06 Oct 2018, 02:16
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A. the collapse of the currency system, and failed
B. the collapse of the currency system, and failing
C. and the collapse of the currency system, also failed
D. the collapse of the currency system, as well as failing
E. and the collapse of the currency system, as well as a failure

1. A cursory glance at the prompt will reveal that there is list parallelism involved in the question.

2. Let us go to the choices now. If there are four items in the list then there should be an 'and' before the last item. Although A and B do have an 'and', unfortunately, the supposed fourth item is not parallel with the rest. Therefore, they are gone.

3. C is a double - verbed fragment.

4. 'As well as' is not equal in status or usage with 'and' as it is not a parallelism marker. D is out.

5. E is the lone remainder. The collapse, as well as a failure, is part of the last item of the list. Correct choice.
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06 Oct 2018, 02:45
Can some expert explain the structure of the correct option choice E.

Decisions caused X,Y and the collapse of the currency system as well as a failure to make sufficient investments.

which part of list is failure part of?
Decisions caused a failure to make investments (wrong)
Decisions caused the collapse of failure (wrong).
It really is very awkward.
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29 Oct 2018, 01:32
PurpleDrank3000 wrote:
For A

In this case, we would have grammatical parallelism, but not logical parallelism, correct? With your changes, if I get rid of all the fluff, the sentence would say “Decisions caused...” and “Decisions failed to make sufficient investment”. The second part is illogical, right? Decisions can’t make investments.

PurpleDrank3000 egmat GMATNinja

Decisions can't make investments than in OA isn't decision caused the collapse .... as well as a failure to make ..... ?
Please Correct me if I am wrong
Re: Early administrative decisions in China’s Ming Dynasty eventually caus   [#permalink] 29 Oct 2018, 01:32

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