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# Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises snow-capped

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01 Jul 2020, 00:58
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Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

A. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

B. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines that descend steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

C. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks that reach an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descends steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

D. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

E. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, is supporting

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01 Jul 2020, 22:25
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

A. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

Incorrect.

This answer choice is stylistically flawed due to ambiguity. It is unclear what the phrase supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species refers to. While it should logically refer to Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity, it may also refer to snow-capped peaks, rain-forest ravines, or the Amazon basin.

B. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines that descend steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

This answer choice solves the ambiguity of the original sentence by changing the main verb comprises to the unconjugated verb comprising (and thus turning almost the entire underlined section into a modifier) and by changing the unconjugated verb supporting to the conjugated verb supports (making it the main verb).

If we look at the sentence without the new modifier, it makes sense:

Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity , ... , supports an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

C. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks that reach an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descends steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

Incorrect.

This answer choice is illogical. In this sentence, the phrase and descends steeply towards the Amazon basin is a part of a parallelism of verbs (comprises and descends) whose subject is Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity. However, it is illogical to say that diversity descends into the Amazon basin.

D. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

Incorrect.

While this answer choice is grammatically correct, it is ambiguous. In this sentence, the phrase and descending steeply towards the Amazon basin may be a part of a parallelism with either comprising (comprising ... and descending) or reaching (reaching ... and descending).

Furthermore, both options are invalid: in the former descending illogically refers to diversity and in the latter descending refers to snow-capped peaks, whereas in the original meaning it refers to the rain-forest ravines.

E. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, is supporting

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. In this sentence there are two conjugated verbs in the main clause: comprises and is supporting. A clause may only have one conjugated verb (the main verb) unless a connector (and) is used to connect them.

To see how this happened, lets compact the object of comprises (snow-capped peaks...) into 'X':

Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises X, is supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

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01 Jul 2020, 02:00
IMO A.

A. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

Correct.

Correct parallelism used.
Snow capped peaks with rain forest ravines.
Modifiers reaching and descending are also parallel.

B. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines that descend steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

Incorrect
Modifiers paraelism is wrong
reaching & that descend

C. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks that reach an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descends steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

Incorrect .
Again wrong modifiers
that reach and there should be that descends.

D. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

Incorrect.
This is awkward.
What is descending steeply is not clear .

E. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, is supporting

Incorrect.
I would say this is slippery.
It should not be is supporting,
it should be supporting

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01 Jul 2020, 02:24
2
IMO B.

A) supporting incorrectly modifies, the Amazon basin. The statement sounds as if the Amazon basin is supporting the diversity of wildlife and not Equador's topographical diversity. Eliminate A.

B) Correct

C) Same as A. Another problem with (C) is that 'rain-forest ravines and descends' changes the meaning of the modifer.

D) The meaning of modifier in (D) is incorrect.

E) 'is supporting' is incorrect in the context of the sentence.

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Updated on: 09 Jul 2020, 03:13
2
suchita2409 wrote:
IMO A.

A. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

Correct.

Correct parallelism used.
Snow capped peaks with rain forest ravines.
Modifiers reaching and descending are also parallel.

B. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines that descend steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

Incorrect
Modifiers paraelism is wrong
reaching & that descend

C. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks that reach an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descends steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

Incorrect .
Again wrong modifiers
that reach and there should be that descends.

D. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

Incorrect.
This is awkward.
What is descending steeply is not clear .

E. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, is supporting

Incorrect.
I would say this is slippery.
It should not be is supporting,
it should be supporting

Posted from my mobile device

IMO B.

I eliminated A, and C based on the split between 'supports' (verb) and 'supporting' (verb-ing - a participial modifier, in the case of answer E 'is supporting' is a verb). In B and D we cut the middle man and we get: "Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity...supports an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species."

In answers A+C I don't know what the verb is. In answer E there is one noun with 2 verbs that are not parallel (if they were parallel then 2 verbs can be ok).

Originally posted by Gabzev25 on 01 Jul 2020, 09:13.
Last edited by Gabzev25 on 09 Jul 2020, 03:13, edited 1 time in total.
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01 Jul 2020, 16:16
2
Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

A. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting: ",+ing" modifier "supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species" modifies preceding sentence. However, supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species cannot comprises snow-capped peak and rain-forest. Instead, topographical diversity that comprises snow-capped peak and rain-forest supports an equally astounding diversity of wildlife. hence wrong

B. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines that descend steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports: right

C. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks that reach an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descends steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting: wrong same as A. plus comprises and descends are not parallel structure. "descend" modifies rain-forest ravines

D. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports: wrong parallelism. comprising and descending are not parallel.

E. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, is supporting: verb "is supporting" does not have preceding noun. hence wrong.
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01 Jul 2020, 16:57
1
Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

Lets analyze each & every part of the sentence.

* Subject Verb Agreement

[ "topographical diversity - comprises"]
- Subject has logical verb pair & make sense. Correct.

* Tense

[ Present Tense]
- Present tense logically conveys the intended meaning.Correct.

* If-then condition

- not used

* Subjunctive Verb

- not used

* Pronoun

- not used

* Modifier

[ "reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet" modifies "snow-capped peaks" ; "descending steeply toward the Amazon basin" modifies "rain-forest ravines"; "supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species" modifies the whole clause]
- modifier modifies the clause logically. Correct.

* Parallelism

[ comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet "and" rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin]
- parallelism marker "and" connects two fragments and both fragments are parallel.Correct.

* Comparison

- not used

* Idioms

- not used

While analyzing the whole sentence, no error is identified.

A. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

- correct

B. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines that descend steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

- Parallelism error.

- Incorrect.

C. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks that reach an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descends steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

1. Parallelism error; "and" makes sentence illogical.
2. changed the meaning.

- Incorrect

D. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

- Parallelism error.

- Incorrect

E. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, is supporting

- Tense error; grammatically sentence is okay but it changed the meaning.

- Incorrect

IMO(A)
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06 Jul 2020, 02:16
Bunuel wrote:

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

A. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

Incorrect.

This answer choice is stylistically flawed due to ambiguity. It is unclear what the phrase supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species refers to. While it should logically refer to Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity, it may also refer to snow-capped peaks, rain-forest ravines, or the Amazon basin.

B. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines that descend steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

This answer choice solves the ambiguity of the original sentence by changing the main verb comprises to the unconjugated verb comprising (and thus turning almost the entire underlined section into a modifier) and by changing the unconjugated verb supporting to the conjugated verb supports (making it the main verb).

If we look at the sentence without the new modifier, it makes sense:

Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity , ... , supports an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

C. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks that reach an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descends steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

Incorrect.

This answer choice is illogical. In this sentence, the phrase and descends steeply towards the Amazon basin is a part of a parallelism of verbs (comprises and descends) whose subject is Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity. However, it is illogical to say that diversity descends into the Amazon basin.

D. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

Incorrect.

While this answer choice is grammatically correct, it is ambiguous. In this sentence, the phrase and descending steeply towards the Amazon basin may be a part of a parallelism with either comprising (comprising ... and descending) or reaching (reaching ... and descending).

Furthermore, both options are invalid: in the former descending illogically refers to diversity and in the latter descending refers to snow-capped peaks, whereas in the original meaning it refers to the rain-forest ravines.

E. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, is supporting

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. In this sentence there are two conjugated verbs in the main clause: comprises and is supporting. A clause may only have one conjugated verb (the main verb) unless a connector (and) is used to connect them.

To see how this happened, lets compact the object of comprises (snow-capped peaks...) into 'X':

Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises X, is supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

bunuel isn' t verbing modifier(supporting) after comma supposed to modify the subject of the previous clause(Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity) or the full independent clause(i.e because it comprises of ...) or it presents the result of the previous clause( because it comprises of ...)
the only reason for confusion between a and b is the main verb pls shed some light
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07 Jul 2020, 21:21
1
Prateeksansanwal wrote:
Bunuel wrote:

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

A. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

Incorrect.

This answer choice is stylistically flawed due to ambiguity. It is unclear what the phrase supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species refers to. While it should logically refer to Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity, it may also refer to snow-capped peaks, rain-forest ravines, or the Amazon basin.

B. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines that descend steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

This answer choice solves the ambiguity of the original sentence by changing the main verb comprises to the unconjugated verb comprising (and thus turning almost the entire underlined section into a modifier) and by changing the unconjugated verb supporting to the conjugated verb supports (making it the main verb).

If we look at the sentence without the new modifier, it makes sense:

Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity , ... , supports an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

C. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks that reach an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descends steeply toward the Amazon basin, supporting

Incorrect.

This answer choice is illogical. In this sentence, the phrase and descends steeply towards the Amazon basin is a part of a parallelism of verbs (comprises and descends) whose subject is Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity. However, it is illogical to say that diversity descends into the Amazon basin.

D. diversity, comprising snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines and descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, supports

Incorrect.

While this answer choice is grammatically correct, it is ambiguous. In this sentence, the phrase and descending steeply towards the Amazon basin may be a part of a parallelism with either comprising (comprising ... and descending) or reaching (reaching ... and descending).

Furthermore, both options are invalid: in the former descending illogically refers to diversity and in the latter descending refers to snow-capped peaks, whereas in the original meaning it refers to the rain-forest ravines.

E. diversity comprises snow-capped peaks reaching an altitude of more than 20,000 feet and rain-forest ravines descending steeply toward the Amazon basin, is supporting

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. In this sentence there are two conjugated verbs in the main clause: comprises and is supporting. A clause may only have one conjugated verb (the main verb) unless a connector (and) is used to connect them.

To see how this happened, lets compact the object of comprises (snow-capped peaks...) into 'X':

Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises X, is supporting an equally astounding diversity of wildlife species.

bunuel isn' t verbing modifier(supporting) after comma supposed to modify the subject of the previous clause(Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity) or the full independent clause(i.e because it comprises of ...) or it presents the result of the previous clause( because it comprises of ...)
the only reason for confusion between a and b is the main verb pls shed some light

I have the same doubt. I think one of the reason for A being wrong can be that normally, verb-ing is supposed to present a result or how aspect of the clause it is modifying. In this case, it is not doing either. It is just presenting a fact. This is similar to the OG problem here - https://gmatclub.com/forum/emily-dickin ... 10142.html
It has the same logical reasoning.
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12 Jul 2020, 11:31
I did think of the modifier ambiguity present in option (A) but eliminated option (B) based on parallelism error.
"snow capped peaks reaching ...... and rainforest ravines that descend....."

Am I missing a concept here?
egmat
Re: Ecuador's extraordinary topographical diversity comprises snow-capped   [#permalink] 12 Jul 2020, 11:31