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# ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2013, 01:42
1
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egmat wrote:
SOLUTION

Identify whether the underlined words are verbs or verb-ed modifiers.

1. Like birds today, Archaeopteryx had feathers that were fully formed.
Formed = simple past tense verb. In the relative pronoun clause, “that” is the subject that stands for “feathers” and the verb for this subject is “were formed”.

2. Our powers of color vision are derived from cells in our eyes called cones, three types in all, each triggered by different wavelengths of light.
Called & triggered = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Did the “eyes” do the action of calling? No. Hence, it’s a modifier.
Did “each” do the job of triggering? No. Different wavelengths of light did that job. Hence, “triggered” is the modifier.

3. As Joel Bregman hoped, dozens of young stars turned up in each of the three dead galaxies—and as an added surprise, they even appeared in Messier 105.
Hoped, turned & appeared = simple past tense verbs for subjects “Joel Bregman”, “dozens of young stars” and “they” respectively.
Added = modifier that modifies “surprise”.

4. Dark matter might actually be produced at the energies explored by the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Explored = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Will “the energies” do the job of exploring? No. The world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider might do that action. Hence, “explored” is the modifier.

5. A leader guided by sound principles earned immense respect from the masses.
Guided = verb-ed modifier, earned = simple past tense verb for the subject “A leader”.
Litmus Test: Did a leader do the action of guiding? In this context, no. “Sound principles” guided “a leader”. Hence, guided is the modifier.

6. A company founded on sound business principles achieves much higher success.
Founded = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Did a company do the action of founding? In this context no. May be the founder of the company did that job. Hence, founded is the verb-ed modifier.

7. The lamp decorated with stars filled the child’s room with innocent beauty.
Decorated = verb-ed modifier, filled = simple past tense verb for the subject “The lamp”.
Litmus Test: Did the lamp do the action of decorating. No. Hence, it is the modifier.

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.

Sam was cheated by his brother.

According to the litnus test given above, In this sentence cheated is ed-modifier or simple past?
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2013, 08:30
abhinawster wrote:
egmat wrote:
SOLUTION

Identify whether the underlined words are verbs or verb-ed modifiers.

1. Like birds today, Archaeopteryx had feathers that were fully formed.
Formed = simple past tense verb. In the relative pronoun clause, “that” is the subject that stands for “feathers” and the verb for this subject is “were formed”.

2. Our powers of color vision are derived from cells in our eyes called cones, three types in all, each triggered by different wavelengths of light.
Called & triggered = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Did the “eyes” do the action of calling? No. Hence, it’s a modifier.
Did “each” do the job of triggering? No. Different wavelengths of light did that job. Hence, “triggered” is the modifier.

3. As Joel Bregman hoped, dozens of young stars turned up in each of the three dead galaxies—and as an added surprise, they even appeared in Messier 105.
Hoped, turned & appeared = simple past tense verbs for subjects “Joel Bregman”, “dozens of young stars” and “they” respectively.
Added = modifier that modifies “surprise”.

4. Dark matter might actually be produced at the energies explored by the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Explored = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Will “the energies” do the job of exploring? No. The world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider might do that action. Hence, “explored” is the modifier.

5. A leader guided by sound principles earned immense respect from the masses.
Guided = verb-ed modifier, earned = simple past tense verb for the subject “A leader”.
Litmus Test: Did a leader do the action of guiding? In this context, no. “Sound principles” guided “a leader”. Hence, guided is the modifier.

6. A company founded on sound business principles achieves much higher success.
Founded = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Did a company do the action of founding? In this context no. May be the founder of the company did that job. Hence, founded is the verb-ed modifier.

7. The lamp decorated with stars filled the child’s room with innocent beauty.
Decorated = verb-ed modifier, filled = simple past tense verb for the subject “The lamp”.
Litmus Test: Did the lamp do the action of decorating. No. Hence, it is the modifier.

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.

Sam was cheated by his brother.

According to the litnus test given above, In this sentence cheated is ed-modifier or simple past?

Hi there,

The verb in this sentence is not just cheated but "was cheated" The verb is written in passive voice. Because the sentence is written in passive voice it is obvious that the subject (Sam) is the receiver of the action and the object (his brother) is the doer of the action.

Thanks.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2013, 08:36
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Expert's post
KnuckleDown wrote:

The below sentence is from your article on Verb-ed modifiers. The correct answer is the same as the sentence given below. After going through Verb-ing modifier concept on E-GMAT, I understand that Verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding noun. However, in the below sentence, that rule is getting violated. Please help me understand this.

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Thanks,
Knuckledown

Hi Knuckledown,

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

This is how you should read the sentence and then you will see that the sentence does not break any rule:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

The "that clause" that separates "a giant fungus" from its verb-ed modifier "spawned" is a modifier that gives additional information about "a giant fungus". Since it is just a modifier "spawned" can jump over it and refer to "a gain fungus".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2013, 01:09

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

i think c is the correct as it is parallaly correct with al ed form

Last edited by jitendersingh on 24 Jul 2013, 00:05, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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23 Jul 2013, 06:32
jitendersingh wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

B IS THE ANSWER IS THT TRUE.PLZ LET ME KNOW

Hi Jitender,

I'm afraid B is not the correct answer. Why don't you try it once more and post your analysis here? It will help you why B and other three choices are incorrect and why the correct choice is correct.

Thanks.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2013, 12:54
egmat wrote:
jitendersingh wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

B IS THE ANSWER IS THT TRUE.PLZ LET ME KNOW

Hi Jitender,

I'm afraid B is not the correct answer. Why don't you try it once more and post your analysis here? It will help you why B and other three choices are incorrect and why the correct choice is correct.

Thanks.

IMO OA: D

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2013, 07:03
bagdbmba wrote:
IMO OA: D

Hi there,
Yup, that's the correct answer. Why don't you post the analysis here? That will be helpful to many.

Thanks.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2013, 23:50
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

'Language variations...' is an absolute phrase. 'which...' and 'perpetuated..' tell us more about language variation. To check whether 'perpetuated' is a ver-ed modifier or verb? We should ask the question, Did 'language variations' do the action of perpetuation? No. 'Perpetuating was done by geographical locations. Thus 'perpetuated' is a verd-ed modifier. As there is an 'and' parallel marker, parallelism needs to be maintained. A phrase and a cluase can be parallel. 'Originated' is a verb. Usage of 'perpetuating' is also incorrect as language variations are not doing the action of 'perpetuating'. Thus D is the right answer.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Verb and Verb-ed can't be parallel
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Correct
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating-'originating' is correct whereas 'perpetuating' is not

@Shraddha: I face a problem when dealing with this type of questions. I get bit engrossed in deciding whether (for eg) did 'language variations' do the action of 'originating'?. Is there any other simple manner to check whether the given ED verb is verb-ed modifier or a verb? Any help is deeply appreciated.

Regards,
Heman2727
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2013, 07:53
heman2727 wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

'Language variations...' is an absolute phrase. 'which...' and 'perpetuated..' tell us more about language variation. To check whether 'perpetuated' is a ver-ed modifier or verb? We should ask the question, Did 'language variations' do the action of perpetuation? No. 'Perpetuating was done by geographical locations. Thus 'perpetuated' is a verd-ed modifier. As there is an 'and' parallel marker, parallelism needs to be maintained. A phrase and a cluase can be parallel. 'Originated' is a verb. Usage of 'perpetuating' is also incorrect as language variations are not doing the action of 'perpetuating'. Thus D is the right answer.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Verb and Verb-ed can't be parallel
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Correct
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating-'originating' is correct whereas 'perpetuating' is not

@Shraddha: I face a problem when dealing with this type of questions. I get bit engrossed in deciding whether (for eg) did 'language variations' do the action of 'originating'?. Is there any other simple manner to check whether the given ED verb is verb-ed modifier or a verb? Any help is deeply appreciated.

Regards,
Heman2727

Hi Heman2727,

Very good analysis I must say. You have explained the usage of "perpetuated" and "perpetuating" pretty nicely. Keep up the good job of doing such a thorough analysis.

I would juts like to add a bit to your analysis. In choice A, usage of "perpetuated" is certainly incorrect. As you said that the "which = language variations" did the job of originating while geographic isolation did the action of perpetuating. This error can be corrected by turning "perpetuated" into a verb also. We need to add "are" before perpetuated to do so.

Now "which" will have two verbs "originate" and "are perpetuated". These entities are also correct.
So we see there can be multiple ways to correct an incorrect sentence.

Also, the easiest way to find out whether an ED word is a simple past tense verb or a verb-ed modifier is to find out whether the subject is the doer of that action or not. This will become a natural process once you have practiced well. You are already pretty good at this as I can see from your analysis.

Thanks.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2013, 09:44
egmat wrote:
heman2727 wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

'Language variations...' is an absolute phrase. 'which...' and 'perpetuated..' tell us more about language variation. To check whether 'perpetuated' is a ver-ed modifier or verb? We should ask the question, Did 'language variations' do the action of perpetuation? No. 'Perpetuating was done by geographical locations. Thus 'perpetuated' is a verd-ed modifier. As there is an 'and' parallel marker, parallelism needs to be maintained. A phrase and a cluase can be parallel. 'Originated' is a verb. Usage of 'perpetuating' is also incorrect as language variations are not doing the action of 'perpetuating'. Thus D is the right answer.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Verb and Verb-ed can't be parallel
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Correct
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating-'originating' is correct whereas 'perpetuating' is not

@Shraddha: I face a problem when dealing with this type of questions. I get bit engrossed in deciding whether (for eg) did 'language variations' do the action of 'originating'?. Is there any other simple manner to check whether the given ED verb is verb-ed modifier or a verb? Any help is deeply appreciated.

Regards,
Heman2727

Hi Heman2727,

Very good analysis I must say. You have explained the usage of "perpetuated" and "perpetuating" pretty nicely. Keep up the good job of doing such a thorough analysis.

I would juts like to add a bit to your analysis. In choice A, usage of "perpetuated" is certainly incorrect. As you said that the "which = language variations" did the job of originating while geographic isolation did the action of perpetuating. This error can be corrected by turning "perpetuated" into a verb also. We need to add "are" before perpetuated to do so.

Now "which" will have two verbs "originate" and "are perpetuated". These entities are also correct.
So we see there can be multiple ways to correct an incorrect sentence.

Also, the easiest way to find out whether an ED word is a simple past tense verb or a verb-ed modifier is to find out whether the subject is the doer of that action or not. This will become a natural process once you have practiced well. You are already pretty good at this as I can see from your analysis.

Thanks.

Thanks a lot Shraddha for appreciating my analysis. ...I want to thank you for helping us all through your numerous articles...these articles are very informative and have helped me considerably to strengthen my SC basics...

Thanks again...
Heman2727
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2013, 06:36
Hi all,
Here comes the detailed solution of this problem.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

Meaning Analysis:

Popularity of television has resulted in decline of regional dialects. Regional dialects are language variations which:
• Originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages
• Are perpetuated by geographic location

Error Analysis:

“perpetuated” is a verb-ed modifier now. It modifies “language variations”. But it is not parallel to the simple present tense verb “originate”. Hence, either we make “perpetuated” a verb by adding “are” before it because this verb needs to be in passive voice. Or we make “originate” into a noun modifier that modifies “language variations”. That word would be “originating”.

PoE:

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect. Same parallelism error as in choice A. But here we need “was” before “perpetuated” to make it a passive voice verb.

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect.
1. “originated” is a verb here. This leads to a run-on sentence now because two independent clauses are joined just be a comma.
2. Same parallelism error as in choice B.

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Correct. Here “originating” and “perpetuated” both are noun modifiers that modifies “language variations”.

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating: Incorrect.
1. Use of “perpetuating by” is incorrect. It now denotes that the “language variations” did the action of perpetuating.
2. This choice has parallelism error. Even though “originating” and “perpetuating” look identical, they are logically not parallel.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2013, 08:15
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Could you suggest few OG questions that test this topic or any other sources I can use to solidify the concept ( as practice material)
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2013, 11:19
egmat wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
Hi eGMAT,
Going by your 'Takeaway', if the subject of the sentence IS NOT the doer of the action then is there any exception that still the verb-ed form in that sentence,IS NOT the MODIFIER...?

Can you show some examples ?

Hi Debayan,

A verb-ed word will be either a verb or a verb-ed modifier. If it is a verb, it will certainly have a Subject or some doer (if the sentence does not have any grammatical error). If it is not a verb, then the verb-ed word has to be a modifier.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

I am curious to know what is the Verb for "Giant Fungus" in the above sentence. Starting "that......" is a clause and "spawned" and "extending" are Verbed and Verbing so where is the main verb for Giant Fungus?

Thanks,
Saurav
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2013, 11:46
egmat wrote:
heman2727 wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

'Language variations...' is an absolute phrase. 'which...' and 'perpetuated..' tell us more about language variation. To check whether 'perpetuated' is a ver-ed modifier or verb? We should ask the question, Did 'language variations' do the action of perpetuation? No. 'Perpetuating was done by geographical locations. Thus 'perpetuated' is a verd-ed modifier. As there is an 'and' parallel marker, parallelism needs to be maintained. A phrase and a cluase can be parallel. 'Originated' is a verb. Usage of 'perpetuating' is also incorrect as language variations are not doing the action of 'perpetuating'. Thus D is the right answer.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Verb and Verb-ed can't be parallel
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Correct
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating-'originating' is correct whereas 'perpetuating' is not

@Shraddha: I face a problem when dealing with this type of questions. I get bit engrossed in deciding whether (for eg) did 'language variations' do the action of 'originating'?. Is there any other simple manner to check whether the given ED verb is verb-ed modifier or a verb? Any help is deeply appreciated.

Regards,
Heman2727

Hi Heman2727,

Very good analysis I must say. You have explained the usage of "perpetuated" and "perpetuating" pretty nicely. Keep up the good job of doing such a thorough analysis.

I would juts like to add a bit to your analysis. In choice A, usage of "perpetuated" is certainly incorrect. As you said that the "which = language variations" did the job of originating while geographic isolation did the action of perpetuating. This error can be corrected by turning "perpetuated" into a verb also. We need to add "are" before perpetuated to do so.

Now "which" will have two verbs "originate" and "are perpetuated". These entities are also correct.
So we see there can be multiple ways to correct an incorrect sentence.

Also, the easiest way to find out whether an ED word is a simple past tense verb or a verb-ed modifier is to find out whether the subject is the doer of that action or not. This will become a natural process once you have practiced well. You are already pretty good at this as I can see from your analysis.

Thanks.

Heman has already provided a very detailed explanation to the question, I would still like to know how "originated" is the verb here. My thought process is how can language variation (l.v) originate itself and apparently, its evident in the question stem that l.v originated from diverse.......".

Thanks,
Saurav
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2013, 14:20
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Expert's post
Smgs wrote:
egmat wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
Hi eGMAT,
Going by your 'Takeaway', if the subject of the sentence IS NOT the doer of the action then is there any exception that still the verb-ed form in that sentence,IS NOT the MODIFIER...?

Can you show some examples ?

Hi Debayan,

A verb-ed word will be either a verb or a verb-ed modifier. If it is a verb, it will certainly have a Subject or some doer (if the sentence does not have any grammatical error). If it is not a verb, then the verb-ed word has to be a modifier.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

I am curious to know what is the Verb for "Giant Fungus" in the above sentence. Starting "that......" is a clause and "spawned" and "extending" are Verbed and Verbing so where is the main verb for Giant Fungus?

Thanks,
Saurav

Hi Saurav,

Thanks for posting your question here.

Let's understand the structure of the sentence here:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

What we really need to understand here is that "a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest" is a Noun + Noun Modifier.

Noun = a giant fungus
Noun Modifier(s) = spawned... (verb-ed modifier) and extending... (verb-ing modifier)

A Noun + Noun Modifier is never a complete clause. For more on this concept, please read the following article:

If you take this structure to be a clause, you will be introducing a couple of errors in the sentence.
Firstly, we will have two independent clauses joined just by "comma". This will lead to fragment error. (Remember we are talking about the correct official answer choice.)
Secondly, if "spawned" is a verb for "a giant fungus", then "is extending" should have been the correct answer choice in order to be parallel with "spawned".

"spawned" and "extending" are noun modifiers that modify the noun "a giant fungus". They both present the characteristics of this giant fungus that scientists believe to be the oldest and the largest living organism.

For example:

The book appreciated by many by a lot and creating many controversies is coming to this library also.

Here "appreciated" is the verb-ed modifier while "creating" is a verb-ing modifier.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2013, 10:36
Quote:

Heman has already provided a very detailed explanation to the question, I would still like to know how "originated" is the verb here. My thought process is how can language variation (l.v) originate itself and apparently, its evident in the question stem that l.v originated from diverse.......".

Thanks,
Saurav

Hi Saurav,

The meaning of the word "originate" is "rise", "begin". It is absolutely logical to say that language variations began from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages because it is not the work of one individual person or society or group or association. It happened over the due course of time but the origin of language variations is diverse ethnic and cultural heritages.

We must take the meaning of the words in the context of the sentence. Here "originated" completely makes sense.

Hope this helps
Thanks.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2013, 12:53
egmat wrote:
Quote:

Heman has already provided a very detailed explanation to the question, I would still like to know how "originated" is the verb here. My thought process is how can language variation (l.v) originate itself and apparently, its evident in the question stem that l.v originated from diverse.......".

Thanks,
Saurav

Hi Saurav,

The meaning of the word "originate" is "rise", "begin". It is absolutely logical to say that language variations began from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages because it is not the work of one individual person or society or group or association. It happened over the due course of time but the origin of language variations is diverse ethnic and cultural heritages.

We must take the meaning of the words in the context of the sentence. Here "originated" completely makes sense.

Hope this helps
Thanks.

Thank you Shraddha for the detailed explanation!
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2013, 08:50
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Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

in above sentence (our basic sentence) why spawned is not modifying tentacles ? how it is modifying giant fungus?
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2013, 00:51

I have a doubt in this sentence.
"A new textbook focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence assigned by our
instructor." here the verb ED - Focused and Assigned are verbs or Modifiers?

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Rrsnathan.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2013, 07:51
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atalwar wrote:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

in above sentence (our basic sentence) why spawned is not modifying tentacles ? how it is modifying giant fungus?

Hi @atalwar,
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

To understand why “spawned” refers to “a giant fungus”, we need to understand the role of the relative pronoun clause “that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles”.

Relative pronoun clauses are Noun Modifiers. Although they appear in a clause form, essentially they remain Noun Modifier. Now the verb-ed modifier can jump over another Noun Modifier that is placed just after the noun entity the verb-ed modifier is supposed to modify. The way the verb-ed modifier can jump over a prepositional phrase, in the same way it can jump over relative pronoun modifiers as well.

noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

So, here we have “spawned”, a verb-ed modifier that refers to a faraway noun “a giant fungus”. This is a logical modification.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers   [#permalink] 10 Oct 2013, 07:51

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