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ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2014, 09:10
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Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


A wonderful question I must say! Sinner, you deserve a Kudo :)
I have a very simple question that pertains to non-underline portion of the stem.
Here in the clause "The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to...something..." the subject is "The increased popularity and availability of televisions". Which to me is a plural subject, "popularity and availability of something" this would be close to saying "pen and pencil of my friend". So it is a plural subject. How come it is associated with singular verb "has led" ? Should not it be "have led"

E-GMAT experts, please help!
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2014, 04:51
Check Wren and Martin!
This form is correct

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2014, 00:19
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hapless12 wrote:
Check Wren and Martin!
This form is correct


Hi hapless12,
Thanks for your reply. However it does not help...
I know it is correct, for it is in non-underlined part of GMAT official question...
My limited point is did not we learn that if two nouns are joined by AND, for example "X and Y" they together form a plural noun. So what is that I am missing here?

e-GMAT please help.
TIA,
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2014, 23:41
egmat wrote:

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.


Hi egmat

Can you please explain why "that" is needed in the first sentence? I know that the lamp didn't DO the decorating but I don't see how "that" fixes this?

Thanks!

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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Very succinctly put e-gmat. Kudos.. For the question put up in the topic below was my thought process. Could you please comment if it correct and more importantly could this fail me ?

Q - Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A. extending
B. extends
C. extended
D. it extended
E. is extending

In the above sentence we can see that the underlined portion is just a modifying phrase giving extra information , so if we omit that the sentence becomes

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth........extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Now we can see that only extending fits in .

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2014, 05:45
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himanshujovi wrote:
Very succinctly put e-gmat. Kudos.. For the question put up in the topic below was my thought process. Could you please comment if it correct and more importantly could this fail me ?

Q - Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A. extending
B. extends
C. extended
D. it extended
E. is extending

In the above sentence we can see that the underlined portion is just a modifying phrase giving extra information , so if we omit that the sentence becomes

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth........extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Now we can see that only extending fits in .



Hi himanshujovi,
Thank you for the query. :)


• Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

You have correctly identified that the highlighted part of the sentence is a modifier. However I want to add two points to your analysis:

1. A modifying phrase cannot end with ‘and’ as it is the case with the underlined portion “a giant fungus….years ago and”. So, the modifier extends till the end of the sentence i.e. “a giant fungus that….. Michigan forest.”

2. In the given sentence, you omitted the comma also while omitting the underlined part, but the comma is not the part of the modifying phrase. So, we cannot remove it.
Now, the presence of a comma before a verb-ing modifier can change the meaning of the sentence and the modified entity. Let’s understand the usage of verb-ing modifier:

USAGE I
If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause, and it is preceded by a comma, then it modifies the preceding clause. This modifier:
i) Either provides additional information about the preceding clause
ii) Or presents the result of the preceding clause.

Tom killed the snake, using a stick. (Additional information)
The recession adversely affected the company’s business, reducing its profits by 50%. (Outcome)


USAGE II
If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause and it is not preceded by a comma then it modifies the preceding noun.
He got into the cab waiting outside his house. (‘waiting’ modifies ‘the cab’)


Now, when we omit the highlighted part, the sentence becomes:
Scientists have recently discovered
what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Now, since the verb-ing modifier ‘extending’ here is preceded by a comma, it should modify the entire preceding clause, and it should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause.
However it is not clear what the additional information presented by the modifier ‘extending’ is. Also, it does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause ‘what’. So, this option is incorrect.

If you have any doubts in the understanding of the verb-ing modifiers please refer to the following articles:
usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html
verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html




So, your understanding regarding the usage of the modifiers in this question is not completely correct. I would recommend that you go through the above articles to know more about the verb-ing modifiers and then come back to this question. If you have any more doubts regarding this, I’ll be more than happy to help.
Also, don’t forget to refer to Shraddha’s awesome explanation for this question at the beginning of this article. This explanation clearly states that the modifier 'extending' modifies "a giant fungus" in the original sentence. If we remove the highlighted part in this sentence, it won't be possible for 'extending' to modify 'a giant fungus'.

Hope this helps! :)
Regards,
Deepak
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2014, 12:19
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russ9 wrote:
egmat wrote:

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.


Hi egmat

Can you please explain why "that" is needed in the first sentence? I know that the lamp didn't DO the decorating but I don't see how "that" fixes this?

Thanks!


Hi russ9,
Thank you for the post. :)

Let’s do the sentence structure for the given sentence:
The lamp
o decorated the child’s room
o filled his room with innocent beauty.

As shown, there are two verbs for the subject ‘the lamp’ in the given sentence. These verbs are not connected properly. So, either we need to connect these verbs using ‘and’ or we can provide another subject for one of the verbs. Now, let’s see how ‘that’ solves this problem:

The lamp
o that decorated the child’s room
filled his room with innocent beauty.

So, ‘that’ acts as the subject for the verb ‘decorated’ and now the sentence becomes grammatically correct.

Hope this helps! :)
Deepak
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2014, 08:12
Great article by e-gmat.
This article helped me a lot in distinguishing between verb-ed modifier and past tense ed verb.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2014, 00:23
Hi @egmat/Shraddha,
One question regarding the litmus test. In one of the sentence for practice - "Our powers of color vision derive from cells in our eyes called cones, three types in all, each triggered by different wavelengths of light."- we concluded that "called" is a modifier as action of calling is not done by cells. This makes sense.

However, I was trying to apply the same concept to another usage of "called" and got confused. What is called in the sentence below :
"I am called Ravi."
Isn't "am called" the verb of the sentence? But if I apply the litmus test here, it would suggest that called is a modifier as the action of calling is still not done by the subject - "I". Right?

Am I making any mistake here? It would be great if you could help me clarify my doubt.

Thanks,
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2014, 01:45
Hi Shraddha
I have a doubt in the below mentioned sentence.
4. Dark matter might actually be produced at the energies explored by the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Explored = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Will “the energies” do the job of exploring? No. The world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider might do that action. Hence, “explored” is the modifier.

Dark matter might actually be produced AT the energies ??? Is AT to be used here ? If so, Can you Please clarify? Thanks.

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2014, 21:52
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UrsTruly wrote:
Hi @egmat/Shraddha,
One question regarding the litmus test. In one of the sentence for practice - "Our powers of color vision derive from cells in our eyes called cones, three types in all, each triggered by different wavelengths of light."- we concluded that "called" is a modifier as action of calling is not done by cells. This makes sense.

However, I was trying to apply the same concept to another usage of "called" and got confused. What is called in the sentence below :
"I am called Ravi."
Isn't "am called" the verb of the sentence? But if I apply the litmus test here, it would suggest that called is a modifier as the action of calling is still not done by the subject - "I". Right?

Am I making any mistake here? It would be great if you could help me clarify my doubt.

Thanks,
UrsTruly




Hi UrsTruly,
Thank your for the query. :)

You are absolutely correct in saying that “am called” is the verb of the sentence. Now, as we know “is/am/are” are usually followed by verb-ing form, but here “am” is followed by the past participle form. Why is it so? - Because this is a passive verb, not an active verb.

Let’s take an example:
Harry completed the assignment.

Here, the verb is “completed”, and it makes sense with the subject “Harry”. Now, let’s change the sentence to passive voice:
The assignment was completed by Harry.

In this sentence “completed” does not make sense with the subject “the assignment”. However, the verb here is “was completed”, which makes perfect sense with the subject “the assignment”. So, “the assignment” is not the subject of “completed”, it is subject of “was completed”. Now, can you apply the same understanding to your question?


Hope this helps! :)
Deepak
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2014, 08:16
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

I have not found answer to my question and so reposting.
Why subject of "The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects.." is plural.

My take is:
what has/have led to decline of regional dialects?
They are 1)increased popularity of televisions (=X) and 2) increased availability of televisions (=Y), joined by AND
So to me, it is a plural subject (X and Y) and so it must have plural verb, i.e. the sentence should read:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions HAVE led to the decline of regional dialects..

Where am I wrong? Or am I dumb :( ?
TIA,
DR!

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2014, 04:55
Sinner1706 wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Another question, which is an entire opposite of the above question but tests the Verb+ing and the Verb+ed Modifiers to the hilt. The similarities and the differences in two questions, will help make the concept crystal clear.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing


Whats the OA BTW.. Is it B in first Qs and E in second question? Good questions..just need the answer to cement the understanding on Verb-ed & Verb-ing. :roll:

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2014, 07:34
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Zakir14 wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Another question, which is an entire opposite of the above question but tests the Verb+ing and the Verb+ed Modifiers to the hilt. The similarities and the differences in two questions, will help make the concept crystal clear.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing


Whats the OA BTW.. Is it B in first Qs and E in second question? Good questions..just need the answer to cement the understanding on Verb-ed & Verb-ing. :roll:


Hi Zakir14,

The detailed solution of both these questions are present in this thread only. The OA for the first question is D and for the second one is E.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
SJ
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ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2014, 09:40
Thanks Shraddha, for the prompt reply. I am going through the thread now..and the discussions of these threads really help in building these concepts in depth.
I have been using eGMAT since last few months and eGMAT really helps me in improving the concepts of SC.
Thanks a lot. :-D

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2014, 11:21
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating



Should'nt there be an 'And' between 'regional dialects,language variations' ? @E-Gmat ?

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2014, 06:02
Hi e-gmat,

I have one doubt in the question below .
'Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.'

Per my understanding spawned should modify tentacles as that is the closest noun. Please confirm whether my understanding is correct or not.

Thanks,
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2015, 11:14
Thanks for the article but what about sentences - I have benefited a lot from the this topic.
Here benefited is participle and I is performing the action. I think verb is a tense form and ed form is without tense.
could we?
I welcome if someone could add matter to my thought

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ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2015, 13:54
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
---I would choose B. since the ing form of 'perpetuate' would modify the whole clause. Rather , it should modify 'dialects' and 'variations'. 'that' is required here because 'originate' is an active verb in the relative clause.
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Another question, which is an entire opposite of the above question but tests the Verb+ing and the Verb+ed Modifiers to the hilt. The similarities and the differences in two questions, will help make the concept crystal clear.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
-- This option because 'determined' and 'differed' can correctly modify 'local times'.
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Did I miss something ?

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2015, 08:22
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Can someone tell me why the below sentence is wrong? Why the verb form "extends" which seems parallel to the "is" is incorrect?

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extends for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers   [#permalink] 08 Nov 2015, 08:22

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