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# Efficiency and redundancy are contradictory characteristics

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Director
Joined: 29 Jul 2006
Posts: 853

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05 Dec 2006, 05:53
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Efficiency and redundancy are contradictory characteristics of linguistic systems: however, they can be used together to achieve usefulness and reliability in communication. If a spoken language is completely efficient, then every possible permutation of its basic language sounds can be an understandable word. However, if the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then it is not true that every possible permutation of a spoken languageâ€™s basic language sounds can be an understandable word.

If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true?
(A) Efficiency causes a spoken language to be useful and redundancy causes it to be reliable.
(B) Neither efficiency nor redundancy can be completely achieved in spoken language.
(C) If a spoken language were completely redundant, then it could not be useful.
(D) If the human auditory system were a perfect receptor of sounds, then every permutation of language sounds would be an understandable word.
(E) If the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then a spoken language cannot be completely efficient.

Please give reasons for ur choices....

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Director
Affiliations: FRM Charter holder
Joined: 02 Dec 2006
Posts: 727

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Schools: Stanford, Chicago Booth, Babson College

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05 Dec 2006, 09:56
Efficiency and redundancy are contradictory characteristics of linguistic systems: however, they can be used together to achieve usefulness and reliability in communication. If a spoken language is completely efficient, then every possible permutation of its basic language sounds can be an understandable word. However, if the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then it is not true that every possible permutation of a spoken languageâ€™s basic language sounds can be an understandable word.

If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true?
(A) Efficiency causes a spoken language to be useful and redundancy causes it to be reliable.

This seems to be right.

(B) Neither efficiency nor redundancy can be completely achieved in spoken language.

We are not sure. It may be possible, but whether that language can be used at all is a different issue altogether.

(C) If a spoken language were completely redundant, then it could not be useful.

If it is completely redundant, then it is not efficient. We can't say it is not useful.

(D) If the human auditory system were a perfect receptor of sounds, then every permutation of language sounds would be an understandable word.

Thats true only when language is completely efficient. But D does not say that language is completely efficient.

(E) If the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then a spoken language cannot be completely efficient.

The language has no issues. It can efficient while human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds. But only understanding these sounds is impossible.

Please give reasons for ur choices....

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VP
Joined: 21 Mar 2006
Posts: 1124

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Location: Bangalore

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05 Dec 2006, 21:30
Give me E!

(A) Efficiency causes a spoken language to be useful and redundancy
causes it to be reliable.
We dont know what causes what. We only know that efficiency and redundancy together achieve usefullness and reliability. OUT
(B) Neither efficiency nor redundancy can be completely achieved in spoken language.
Not stated anywhere. OUT
(C) If a spoken language were completely redundant, then it could not be useful.
Not stated anywhere. We don't know what causes usefulness. Efficiency or redundancy? OUT
(D) If the human auditory system were a perfect receptor of sounds, then every permutation of language sounds would be an understandable word.
The converse is actually true. If every permutation of language sounds would be an understandable word then the human auditory system is a perfect receptor of sounds. OUT
(E) If the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then a spoken language cannot be completely efficient.
Correct.

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Manager
Joined: 25 Sep 2006
Posts: 150

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05 Dec 2006, 21:41
E

gotta use the math implication relation
p ->(implies) q
not q -> not p

The passage said
1) Efficient speaking -> permutation of ....
2) Imperfect audio system -> NOT permutation of ...

from 2), we get
permutation of ... -> Perfect audio system
Efficient speaking -> permutation of ... -> Perfect audio system
OR
Efficient speaking -> Perfect audio system

Hence,
IMperfect audio system -> INefficient speaking

Pheww.. i know this is messy
_________________

livin in a prison island...

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Manager
Joined: 01 Oct 2006
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05 Dec 2006, 22:38
E.

If a language is efficient, every combination of sound has to be understandable.

If human ear is imperfect, then every combination of sounds can not be understandable. Hence language can not be efficient

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Director
Joined: 29 Jul 2006
Posts: 853

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06 Dec 2006, 06:07
Thanks...the OA is E.

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06 Dec 2006, 06:07
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