Join us for MBA Spotlight – The Top 20 MBA Fair      Schedule of Events | Register

 It is currently 06 Jun 2020, 00:22

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Efficiency and redundancy are contradictory characteristics of linguis

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

GMAT Club team member
Status: GMAT Club Team Member
Affiliations: GMAT Club
Joined: 02 Nov 2016
Posts: 5976
GPA: 3.62

### Show Tags

31 Jul 2019, 18:40
00:00

Difficulty:

65% (hard)

Question Stats:

59% (02:26) correct 41% (02:12) wrong based on 123 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

Efficiency and redundancy are contradictory characteristics of linguistic systems: however, they can be used together to achieve usefulness and reliability in communication. If a spoken language is completely efficient, then every possible permutation of its basic language sounds can be an understandable word. However, if the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then it is not true that every possible permutation of a spoken language’s basic language sounds can be an understandable word.

If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true?

(A) Efficiency causes a spoken language to be useful and redundancy causes it to be reliable.

(B) Neither efficiency nor redundancy can be completely achieved in spoken language.

(C) If a spoken language were completely redundant, then it could not be useful.

(D) If the human auditory system were a perfect receptor of sounds, then every permutation of language sounds would be an understandable word.

(E) If the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then a spoken language cannot be completely efficient.

_________________
GMAT Tutor
Joined: 24 Jun 2008
Posts: 2122

### Show Tags

05 Aug 2019, 18:50
1
The stem says nothing about redundancy, or at least nothing that would let us draw an inference about it. So A, B and C aren't correct. And the stem tells us nothing about what would be true if the "human auditory system is a perfect receptor", so D can't be correct. The stem only tells us what is true if the auditory system is imperfect, so that's the only situation we can draw an inference about. So you could reach E by elimination.

E is correct, but the wording is so complicated (much more LSAT-like than GMAT-like) that it makes sense to simplify it a lot to see the logical connections. Paraphrasing the last sentence of the stem, "if ears are imperfect, then some sound combinations are not understandable words". The second last sentence says, similarly simplifying, "if a language is efficient, every sound combination is an understandable word". So it cannot simultaneously be true that ears are imperfect and a languages is efficient, since those two premises lead to contradictory conclusions, and that's why E is a correct inference.
_________________
GMAT Tutor in Montreal

If you are looking for online GMAT math tutoring, or if you are interested in buying my advanced Quant books and problem sets, please contact me at ianstewartgmat at gmail.com
Manager
Status: As cheeks from my insta feed say: soon...
Joined: 16 Jan 2016
Posts: 67

### Show Tags

05 Aug 2019, 10:06
Efficiency and redundancy are contradictory characteristics of linguistic systems: however, they can be used together to achieve usefulness and reliability in communication. If a spoken language is completely efficient, then every possible permutation of its basic language sounds can be an understandable word. However, if the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then it is not true that every possible permutation of a spoken language’s basic language sounds can be an understandable word.

If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true?

(A) Efficiency causes a spoken language to be useful and redundancy causes it to be reliable.

(B) Neither efficiency nor redundancy can be completely achieved in spoken language.

(C) If a spoken language were completely redundant, then it could not be useful.

(D) If the human auditory system were a perfect receptor of sounds, then every permutation of language sounds would be an understandable word.

(E) If the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then a spoken language cannot be completely efficient.

Here comes the conditional reasoning, implying that if permutation cannot form an understandable word, then the spoken language is not completely efficient
Non-Human User
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 9080

### Show Tags

19 Jan 2020, 04:59
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
Re: Efficiency and redundancy are contradictory characteristics   [#permalink] 19 Jan 2020, 04:59