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# El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a

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VP
Joined: 15 Jul 2015
Posts: 1310
Location: India
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V51
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2018, 23:37
Skywalker18 wrote:
AjiteshArun , daagh , mikemcgarry ,GMATNinja ,egmat, other experts-- please enlighten
In the correct answer , is the usage of "to allow" correct? To allow should express intent/purpose

To can be used for intent, but it has a whole lot of other uses too. In this case they're trying to get at result. For example,

The opening was large enough to allow only a small child through.

Here the meaning is not (a) for the purpose of allowing only a small child through the opening was large enough but (b) the size of the opening was such that only a particular result was possible.
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Joined: 28 Jan 2018
Posts: 48
Location: Taiwan
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a [#permalink]

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11 Feb 2018, 23:56
275. El Nino, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east.

Options (A), (B) & (C) lack the main verb, thus the sentence as a whole is a fragment
(E) "where" cannot modify phenomenon. "Where" always modifies place/places.

(D) has the main verb "is", and correct use of modifier.

(A) a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated
(B) a phenomenon where changes in the ocean and atmosphere are combining to allow the warm water that is accumulating
(C) a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated
(D) is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated
(E) is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating

Last edited by lary301254M7 on 12 Feb 2018, 01:16, edited 1 time in total.
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Joined: 23 Feb 2015
Posts: 241
Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2018, 14:17
Hi Puilunchristin,

Thank you for your question. Let's look at this question, one problem at a time, and see if we can narrow it down to the correct answer!

The first major difference between the answers is how they begin: a phenomenon vs. is a phenomenon. The problem with just using "a phenomenon" is that it creates a sentence fragment. There is no verb in the sentence - it's just a subject with two modifiers. So, let's get rid of answers A, B, & C because all three answers aren't complete sentences.

Now that we've narrowed it down to only D & E, let's look at what's different about each one:

(D) is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated

Answer D is the CORRECT answer because it uses the phrase "in which" to indicate an explanation, not the phrase "where" which indicates place or direction. It also uses clearer verbs "combine" and "has accumulated" to show meaning.

(E) is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating

Answer E is INCORRECT because it uses the word "where," which should only be used to show place or direction - NOT to indicate you are giving an example or explanation. The other problem is using verbs like "are combining" and "accumulating." They both tell the reader that this phenomenon is happening only RIGHT NOW, instead of saying it's something that happens in the past and could also happen in the present or future.
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a   [#permalink] 12 Feb 2018, 14:17

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