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# Eminent economists believe that among the most

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Updated on: 16 Jul 2019, 09:51
IMO A.

Question: Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Solving this with parallelism, the general context followed with verbs is -ing. Hence, this should be followed in the underlined part as well.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels [Parallelism followed, -ing connotation followed. Correct.]
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels [Parallelism is not followed, 'decreases' violates the rule of parallelism. Incorrect.]
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. [Parallelism is not followed, 'decreases' violates the rule of parallelism. Incorrect.]
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. [Parallelism is not followed, 'reduction' violates the rule of parallelism. Incorrect.]
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. [Parallelism is not followed, 'reduction' and 'decrease' violate the rule of parallelism. Incorrect.]

Originally posted by 05divya on 16 Jul 2019, 09:03.
Last edited by 05divya on 16 Jul 2019, 09:51, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:05
1
This answer to this question is determined using the principle of parallelism.

Since ... high debts level..., must be in parallel with ...tax revenues... and ...unemployment rates...
Therefore "A", "B" and "C" are eliminated based on the fact they wrongly became parallel to ...defaulting loans... which is a modifier to ...high debts levels amid optimistic sentiments...

"D" and "E" used "reduction" which is in parallel to ...high debt levels... based on the same tenses.

"D" made the parallelism mistake by introducing the last part of the sentence with "decreasing"

I noticed NO KUDOS YESTERDAY even with correct answer and explanation. It encourages when you give Kudos.

Thank you.
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16 Jul 2019, 09:06
1
This is parallelism questions.

The parallel list will contain the signs of looming recession of which 3 are listed
1) high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments
2) reduction in tax revenues
3) decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

>>"defaulting loans and other delinquencies" is a modifier and modifying the 1st element of the list "high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments"

On the basis of above reasoning. A,B, C are out as they are unparallel

D - and decreasing making the list unparallel.

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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:12
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Meaning of the sentence:
Eminent economists believe that following are most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy:
1) high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments
2) defaulting loans and other delinquencies
3) reduction in tax revenues
4) decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Items 1) and 2) are nouns, and are part of non-underlined portion. Hence, items 3) and 4) should also be nouns in order to make the list parallel.

Errors:
1) decreasing of unemployment rates
2) reducing tax revenues

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16 Jul 2019, 09:14
1
Using the POE to determine the correct answer:

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - reducing tax revenue and decreasing of are not parallel to other items in the list which are noun phrases. Eliminate A
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same parallelism issue here as in A, decreases is both not parallel in its verb form to rest of the items in the list and also uses the present continuous verb form which is inappropriate for the sentence which is trying to enlist prominent signs of recessions. B is out.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same parallelism issue as in B, i.e. reducing tax is not parallel to the remaining items in the list. C can go
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - decreasing of is somewhat wordy and awkward and also might raise parallelism issues. Lets lose D.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Perfect! All items on the list of major signs of recession are parallel to each other, decrease in is a better more succinct way of saying decreasing of as in option D. E is the best choice here.

Correct choice is E.
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16 Jul 2019, 09:19
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates are not correctly parallel to the list. Incorrect

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates are not correctly parallel to the list. Incorrect

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates are not correctly parallel to the list. Incorrect

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates are not correctly parallel to the list. Incorrect

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates is an example of correct parallelism. Correct
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. is a correct sentence.

IMO E
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16 Jul 2019, 09:23
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. WRONG. "reducing" and "decreases"
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. WRONG. "reducing" and "decreases"
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. WRONG. "reduction" and "decreasing"
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. RIGHT. more preferable than A, because of uses noun
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:25
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels: decreasing of is not a proper phrase.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels: We should not use reduce as a gerund here, it should be used as a noun.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels: Again reducing is not a proper use here.
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels: decreasing of is not a proper phrase.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels: This uses proper phrase and noun. reduction in tax and a decrease in unemployment should be used.

Please hit kudos if you like the solution.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:26
Following three items are in list
1)high debt levels
2)reduction in tax revenues
3)decrease in unemployment rates
only E maintains the parallelism
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16 Jul 2019, 09:26
The parallels include "high debt levels" and "defaulting loans". The verb "reducing" is not parallel to the nouns used in the first two examples, which cuts out A, B, and C. In the same line of logic, "decreasing" is not parallel and should be "decrease in" (this removes answer D).

E.
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Updated on: 17 Jul 2019, 01:23
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Meaning: eminent economists believe for looming recession lots of reason, which are given parallely. so we have to look for parallelism
Error analysis of A: parallelism are given in noun form high debt levels, defaulting ( here it is not verb , ) loans , reducing tax ( not verb form), and decreasing of ( not a verb form). hence it sounds correct parallelly. ( correct me if iam wrong, though immaterial here . all acts as adjectives, high, defaulting, reducing and decreasing.. , so they are parallel)

POE:

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels ( lets come back later)

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels ( decreases in ( a verb ) is not parallel . )

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels( decrease in ( a verb ) is not parallel )

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels ( reduction in tax revenues is a one time time event. Here what we need is a continuous phenomena, so the noun reduction distorts the meaning which the sentence intend to convey. plus the noun is not parallel to adjective . so its wrong)

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels ( reduction in tax revenues is a one time time event. Here what we need is a continuous phenomena, so the noun reduction distorts the meaning which the sentence intend to convey.plus the noun is not parallel to adjective so its wrong)

finally, coming back to a, it serves all our purpose hence the ans is A

PS. ANS IS FINE, LOGICALLY BTW DOES LOOMING SIGN OF RECESSION HAS DECREASING RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT???? THAT TOO IN EXTRAORDINARY LEVEL????????

Originally posted by ccheryn on 16 Jul 2019, 09:29.
Last edited by ccheryn on 17 Jul 2019, 01:23, edited 8 times in total.
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Updated on: 16 Jul 2019, 10:09
IMO A

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "and" has no comma before it, violating the parallelism. "decreases in A to B" is not correct, correct usage is "decreasing of A to B"

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "decreases in A to B" is not correct, correct usage is "decreasing of A to B"

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "reduction in tax revenues" is not parallel with "defaulting loans"

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease inunemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "reduction in tax revenues" is not parallel with "defaulting loans". "decreases in A to B" is not correct, correct usage is "decreasing of A to B"

Originally posted by rahaman26 on 16 Jul 2019, 09:35.
Last edited by rahaman26 on 16 Jul 2019, 10:09, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:37
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Simple sentence: among the signs are debt levels, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates--> inverted sentence: debt levels, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates are among the signs

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> not parallel: need proper noun(debt levels), proper noun/complex gerund, & proper noun/complex gerund
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> same as A
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> same as A
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> same as A
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> correct
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:37
1
Quote:
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

In this sentence correction (SC) question, we need to devote attention to the parallelism rule. Let us have a closer look at the options and identify which one is more relevant:
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "reducing" and "decreasing" are not parallel to "high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies", thus this option is not the best suite Incorrect
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Here, again, as in the previous option "reducing" is not parallel to the previous part of the sentence. In addition, "decreases" is a verb, which makes the sentence awkward. Incorrect
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Here, as in both previous options, the word "reducing" is not in the parallel form to the first part of the sentence. Incorrect
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Even though the correct form of the word "reduce" is used here, the word "decreasing" is not parallel to all previous part of the sentence. Incorrect
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - In this version of the sentence parallelism is adhered to, sentence is clean and concise. - Correct
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:44
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

here we have a parallelism issue.
First of all, what do we list?
high debt levels...defaulting loans...what's next? revenues are in line with our list. Thus D and E are out.
Choosing between A, B and C, I chose C, because gerund "decreasing" is not parallel to the list of nouns.
As for B, "decreases" used incorrectly, and also this choice does not have a comma.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --- gerund is not parallel
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --- where is a comma?
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --- This is the correct answer.
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - wrong as discussed above
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - wrong as discussed above

IMO C
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:45
IMO-C

Brief:
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are
* high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments,
* defaulting loans and other delinquencies,
* reducing tax revenues,
* and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

1) SV Agreement- All Subjects are accounted with proper verb.. economists-- believe: Signs--are...
2) Tense- General statement, so use of present tense (believe / are ) is ok.
3) IDIOM- "decreasing of " is unidiomatic. Correct one is "Decrease in"
4) Pronoun- No pronoun.
5) Modifiers- No error.
6) Parallelism - All elements X,Y,Z & W are parallel.
7) Meaning- No Error

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels--- Incorrect---IDIOM
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels----Incorrect-- by dropping comma this changes meaning- combines the last two element into one suggesting there are in total 3 elements
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-- Correct
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels---Incorrect--IDIOM
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels--- Incorrect--Elements no longer parallel.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:48
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
Meaning Analysis:

Error analysis:

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Incorrect.There is a parallelism error in his sentence. Reducing is present participle. a noun form , reduction, would do the trick here. also the phrase decreasing of unemployment rates is incorrect.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- . Incorrect.Same error as explained in A. Also, We cannot say decreases in rates. it should be decrease in rates.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-Incorrect. Same error as explained in A about reducing.
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Incorrect. The word reduction is parallel to the list however, as explained in choice A, decreasing of unemployment rates is incorrect.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Perfectly maintains the parallel structure, and correctly conveys the meaning of the sentence.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:53
2
1
By analyzing the intended meaning,
(1) there are three signs, which are: high debts, reduction of tax revenues (not the tax by itself), decrease of unemployment rate (not the employment rate by itself)
(2) "high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments "caused "defaulting loans and other delinquencies"

split (1): reducing vs reduction:
using "reducing", a participial phrase parallel to "defaulting", incorrectly conveys that high debt levels leads to reduced tax revenues.
"reduction", as a noun, coveys the intended meaning my making it parallel to "debts" ---> A,B,C out
so (among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are ...... reduction of tax (reducing tax)

split (2): decreasing vs decreases vs decrease:
decreases : completely wrong because it has no parallel antecedent or valid subject. --> B out
decreasing: participial phrase that repeats the mistake of "reducing" we mentioned above. --> A,D out
decrease: a noun that is correctly parallel to debts and reduction before it.

E
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 10:03
1
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Both parts are ing modifiers and as a whole, we get 3 ing modifiers, but per my understanding, we need something parallel to " high debt levels"

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
not parallel at all, we have two ing modifiers in a row: defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, wrong
"decreases" is a verb for the singular noun, wrong

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
we have two ing modifiers in a row: "defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues" wrong

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreasing is an ing modifier and is used incorrectly with "and"
"reduction in tax revenues" is parallel to " high debt levels" but not connected properly with conjuction

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
We have got a list:
" high debt levels"
"reduction in tax revenues"
"decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels"
connected with "and"

IMO
Ans: E
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 10:04

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"Reducing" is wrong in A,B,C
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"Decreasing" is wrong.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
Correct.
Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most   [#permalink] 16 Jul 2019, 10:04

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