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# Eminent economists believe that among the most

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16 Jul 2019, 10:15
I feel it should be C.Reducing is correct and in parallel to "Defaulting" so options D&E goes out,Decreases in B so B goes out.Decrease in i feel is correct so C
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16 Jul 2019, 10:16
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. Incorrect. There is a parallelism error in reducing tax revenue and decreasing of unemployement.Reducing here is in present continuous which is wrong. Also "decreasing of" is wrong.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.Incorrect.Same error as in A.Also " decreases in" is wrong usage.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. Incorrect. Usage of" reducing" is wrong

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. Incorrect . "Decreasing of " is wrong usage.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.Correct.No parallelism error between reduction and decrease. Usage of decrease in is correct.
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16 Jul 2019, 10:17
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

This sentence checks parallelism of signs.
'reducing tax revenues' is incorrect as we need a noun phrase and not a modifier and same goes for 'decreasing...' as well
So, A,B,C&D are out

Hence E

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
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Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 Jul 2019, 01:45
1
This sentence describes some of the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy: (1) high debt levels, (2) loans and other delinquencies, (3) reduction in tax revenues, and (4) decrease in unemployment rates.
The non-underlined portion features the first two items in the list ("high debt levels..." and "defaulting loans and other delinquencies"), both of which are nouns.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
High debt levels, defaulting loans and delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates are not parallel. Though the "-ing" words could be modifiers or nouns (also known as gerunds), there is no clear indication that reducing tax revenues and decreasing of unemployment rates are nouns. If the reducing of tax revenues and the decreasing of unemployment rates are used, then these are parallel nouns, though wordy.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Similar parallelism issue as in (A). There is no clear indication that reducing tax revenues is a noun. If either the reducing of tax revenues or reduction in tax revenues is used, then this is a parallel noun.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Same parallelism issue as in (B). There is no clear indication that reducing tax revenues is a noun. If either the reducing of tax revenues or reduction in tax revenues is used, then this is a parallel noun.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Similar parallelism issue as in (A). There is no clear indication that decreasing of unemployment rates is a noun. If either decrease in unemployment rates or the decreasing of unemployment rates is used, then this is a parallel noun.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
CORRECT ANSWER. High debt levels, defaulting loans and delinquencies, reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates are parallel. They are all presented in clear and concise manner.

Originally posted by chondro48 on 16 Jul 2019, 10:22.
Last edited by chondro48 on 17 Jul 2019, 01:45, edited 1 time in total.
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16 Jul 2019, 10:29
The entities in comma must be parallel to each other and follow similar structure.

high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : decreasing of is unidiomatic
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : decreases in is unidiomatic
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : correct
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : decreasing of unidiomatic;
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : reduction not parallel with defaulting
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16 Jul 2019, 10:41
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "high debt levels and optimistic sentiments..." should be made parallel with "reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates....". the phrase "defaulting loans and other delinquencies" is a modifier for "high debt levels and optimistic sentiments"
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism not correct and "decreases" is wrong and non-sensical.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism not correct
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism not correct
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - correct
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16 Jul 2019, 10:42
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Option B, C, and D can be immediately eliminated as there is no parallelism.

A) subject "the most prominent signs" tell about lists which should be noun. ing form seems as works as verb in continuous forms. so, incorrect.
E) Correctly uses noun and maintain parallelism. So, correct.
The correct answer choice is (E)
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Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Jul 2019, 19:15
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

The answer must be parallel with high debt levels and defaulting loans.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -Reducing is a verb phrase, so it is not parallel with previous noun phrases
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -Reducing is a verb phrase, so it is not parallel with previous noun phrases
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -Reducing is a verb phrase, so it is not parallel with previous noun phrases
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Reduction is OK, but decreasing is incorrect
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -Reduction and decrease, are parallel with previous entities

Originally posted by Mizar18 on 16 Jul 2019, 10:51.
Last edited by Mizar18 on 16 Jul 2019, 19:15, edited 1 time in total.
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16 Jul 2019, 10:59
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

In the sentence, 'defaulting loans and other delinquencies' is modifying 'high debt levels...'.
By removing the fluff, we have ....signs...are high debt levels..., reducing tax revenues, and decreasing ...
clearly these are not maintaining parallelism.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> reducing and decreasing not in parallel with high. Incorrect.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> reducing and decreases not in parallel with high. Incorrect.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> reducing not in parallel with high and decrease. Incorrect.
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> decreasing not in parallel with high and reduction. Incorrect.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> reduction and decrease in parallel with high. Correct.

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16 Jul 2019, 11:07
Signs are referred in a parallel list here. Reducing tax revenues is parallel to defaulting loans. Therefore eliminate D&E
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreasing of - is incorrect, ing word can either be an adjective or noun.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreases in is incorrect
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Correct
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect due to reason cited above
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to
Incorrect due to reason cited above

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16 Jul 2019, 11:58
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> Wrong. Parallelism Error. reducing and decreasing are not parallel with other noun forms used in the sentence.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> Wrong. Parallelism Error. reducing is not parallel with other noun forms used in the sentence.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> Wrong. Parallelism Error. reducing and decreasing are not parallel with other noun forms used in the sentence.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> Wrong. Parallelism Error. decreasing is not parallel with other noun forms used in the sentence.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> Correct. reduction and decrease are the correct nounce forms parallel to the other noun forms as used in the sentence.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 12:34
2

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Meaning:

1. Eminent economists believe
2. That among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are:
________1) high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments,
________2) defaulting loans and other delinquencies,
________3) reducing tax revenues,
________4) decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Errors:

Attachment:

A.PNG [ 66.43 KiB | Viewed 278 times ]

Quite tough question, I would say +700

To get meaning correct gives us a change to answer correctly.
On the meaning analysis I haven't delve into 'reducing/reduction' and 'decrease/decreasing' difference.
Once you've read original sentence, 'reducing' seems quite acceptable here, but 'decreasing of' is awful.
This question is not exactly testing the idiom usage here, and idioms are not always taken as decision point, so let's go for POE to examine the splits

POE:

First split between 'reducing' and 'reduction':

'reducing' - that causes reduction (acts as a verb and as an adjective)
'reduction' - the act, process, or result of reducing (acts as a noun)

So as a prominent sign of economic recession 'reduction' - are better suitable as result of reducing process of taxes.
(A), (B), and (C) can be eliminated.

Second split between 'decreasing of' and 'decrease in':

From idiom stand point, 'of' and 'in' can be correct depending on the context:
Sales were \$640 million for the quarter, a decrease of 11%.
I haven’t noticed any decrease in ticket sales.

But generally when we want to say the process of growing progressively less we use 'decrease in'
So (A) and (D) can be eliminated.

(B) is out because of wrong parallel list, we need 'comma' before the last 'and'

So we left with (E) as a correct answer.
List of 4 noun entities are properly connected, adjectives modifying first two entities can be ellipsed for sake of identifying the core // list.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Attachment:

E.PNG [ 74.84 KiB | Viewed 279 times ]

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16 Jul 2019, 13:22
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

We need "reduction" instead of "reducing", otherwise there will be no parallelism.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

We need "reduction" instead of "reducing", otherwise there will be no parallelism.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

We need "reduction" instead of "reducing", otherwise there will be no parallelism.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

"Decrease" is preferable, otherwise there will be no parallelism.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

The statement is parallel to the passage, clear and concise.

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16 Jul 2019, 13:33
I am not sure of my answer. Here is my thought process:

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Shortened version for easier analysis:
Prominent signs are debt levels, loans, revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates

Options prefixed with X are discarded...

XA. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
>> Decreasing OF is incorrect

XB. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
>>DecreasES is incorrect. Should be Decrease

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
>> This seems Correct. decrease in unemployement rates is parallel to other noun phrases

XD. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
>>Decreasing OF is incorrect

XE. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
>>This also seems correct, but reducing tax revenue is parallel to defaulting loans. So C seems better.

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16 Jul 2019, 15:54
here we have a list of signs of looming recession for an economy . It has to parallel list. lets evaluate each answer

Option Analysis :-
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Wrong :- reducing and decreasing is -ing verb here . We need noun
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Wrong :- reducing is still wrong as discussed in A
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Wrong :- same as B. though we see comma here but major issue is same
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Wrong :- decreasing is wrong here. Same as in A
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
correct
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 16:21
Parallelism.
Noun clause must be parallel to noun clause.
- high debt levels
- defaulting loans
- reduction in tax revenues
- decrease in unemployment

Only option E is correct
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16 Jul 2019, 16:59
1
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

This question is about parallelism, but the main point is to identify what are the entities that are in parallel.
The clue is in the non-underlined portion which talks about the prominent signs of recession starting with high debt levels. So, one of the items that is part of the parallelism is the noun, high debt levels. What follows after "high debt levels" are additional qualifiers of the debt levels.

The underlined portion talks about two other signs which are the reduced tax revenues and decreased unemployment rates. So, in order to make sure all of the signs being talked about are in parallel, the two underlined items should also be nouns. Hence it should be reduction in tax revenues and decrease in unemployment rates. That is answer choice E.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 17:52
correct verb would be decrease not decreasing so options A, D are out
out of B,C,E ; options B has decreases which is also wrong verb
amog c & e ; e has verb reduction which is not ll to looming and defaulting

IMO C; reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels ; correct

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
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16 Jul 2019, 17:53
defaulting.... , reducing...., decreasing...
Parallelism is maintained only in A.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 20:30
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Error Analysis :
Eminent economists believe that
among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are
high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments,
defaulting loans and other delinquencies,
reducing tax revenues, and
decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

decreasing of unemployment is not parallel with the rest of the thing . So we need to change it

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-Incorrect
Not parallel with rest of the elements

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect
Unemployment rates is plural so use of decreases is wrong

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-correct
Correct use of parallelism , and conveys correct meaning

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-Incorrect
reduction in revenue is not same as reducing revenue , there is a subtle meaning change there

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-Incorrect
reduction in revenue is not same as reducing revenue , there is a subtle meaning change there

Option C is the Correct Answer
Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most   [#permalink] 16 Jul 2019, 20:30

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