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Eminent economists believe that among the most

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New post 15 Aug 2019, 10:05
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Hi ccheryn,

Nice catch. You’ve just proved how well you "groked" the above post. Although I am far from being an expert, I thank you for your kind words. Indeed, defaulting loans appear to be incorrect phrase. I have just browsed some academic press such as Bloomberg, Financial Times, New York Times, The Economist, and The World Street Journal. None of them use the phrases “defaulting loans” and “reducing revenue”.

As you correctly mentioned, defaulting should modify and refer to a doer who/what is actually able to default on something, for example:

- defaulting students (participle)
- defaulting company (participle)
- borrowers defaulting on loans (participle)
- people defaulting on mortgage (participle)
- Defaulting on federal student loans may not be such a bad thing. (gerund; from The Wall Street Journal)
- defaulting on loans (gerund)

or we can use passive:

- debts being defaulted on (participle)
- being defaulted on loans (participle)

Therefore, defaulting loans is neither participle + noun nor gerund + noun.

Conclusion: defaulting on as a gerund or particple refers to a DOER who actually defaults on SOMETHING. On the other hand, being defaulted on as a participle refers and modifies that SOMETHING.

Once again, it was nice catch. I am glad to see your progress.
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:13
First decision point is Reducing/ reduction.
Reducing is not parallel with high debt levels , defaulting loans which are noun phrases. So reduction would be the best choice.

Then it comes to option D and E.
Decrease in is parallel to the rest of the listed phrases.

So, answer is E.

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:15
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreasing of unemployment rates means action is done by subject and this is not consistent with the list.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreases is wrongly used the 'reducing ' is parallel to the other items in the list though.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Correct parallelism followed and correct 'decrease' is used meaning, 'signs of looming ...ARE'
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Reduction in tax revenues is action done by a subject and thus is not parallel structure
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reduction in tax is an action taken by someone and this is not parallel.
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:18
This is a list anchored by nouns and noun pherases. Reducing is not appropriate because it is better communicated with the action noun reduction, this gets you down to e D and E. Similarly Decreasing should be in the the form decrease. E accomplished both of these things.


Hence, the correct answer is E

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:22
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect. Decreasing of unemployment is not correct.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect. Missing comma and decreases in unemployment is not correct verb form to be used.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct. Parallelism is correct in this statement.
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect. Reduction in tax revenues is incorrect usage and decreasing of unemployment is also incorrect.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect. reduction in tax revenues is incorrect form.
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New post Updated on: 16 Jul 2019, 22:29
Parallelism -
high debt levels is a noun, so the others forming the parallel structure should also begin with nouns or noun forms.

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect parallel structure - noun, verb and action noun

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect parallel structure - noun, verb and verb

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect parallel structure - noun, verb and action noun

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
In this case 'decrease in' is better than 'decreasing of'

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Correct

Option E

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Originally posted by prashanths on 16 Jul 2019, 08:22.
Last edited by prashanths on 16 Jul 2019, 22:29, edited 2 times in total.
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:30
high debt levels, defaulting loans - These are the nouns mentioned in the sentence. The next part of the sentence should be parallel with this.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism error
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism error
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism error
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism error
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Answer should be E.
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:41
E has to be the correct answer.

Among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are reduction and decrease - - - is parallel

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:43
Here concept tested is of parallel structure, and idiom :
reducing tax revenues is wrong compared with reduction in tax revenues

A. reducing tax revenues and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels :
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

A,b,c are out for useage of reducing tax revenues
E is out for not maintaining parallel structure between reduction and decrease
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:45
C IMO

This is clearly a llism question. In the list, first two elements of the list are nouns - "high debt levels" and "defaulting loans". So upcoming elements have to be nouns as well. So "reducing tax revenue" is better than "reduction in tax revenue".

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

"decreasing of unemployment" is unidiomatic, "decrease in unemployment" is better.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

"decreases in unemployment" doesn't make much sense

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Correct

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"reduction in tax revenues" is worse off than "reducing tax revenues" to make list ll

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"reduction in tax revenues" is worse off than "reducing tax revenues" to make list ll
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:48
high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments (Modifier+noun), defaulting loans and other delinquencies (Modifier+noun+Others), reducing tax revenues (Verb+noun) , and decreasing of unemployment rates (Verb -due to are before start of parallel structure + preposition+ noun) to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect for parallelism error as explained above)
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same error as Option A (are reducing + are decreases)
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same error - verb (are reducing tax revenues) affects parallel structure
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same error as option A (are decreasing)
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct

IMO E
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:51
Sentence is mentioning a list of signs of recession for an economy. Check for parallelism in each item along with other mistakes.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Here 'decreasing of' is not parallel to 'reducing' and 'defaulting' (which are acting as gerund)

B.reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Subject-verb agreement error here due to usage of singular verb 'decreases' for plural 'unemployment rates'.

C.reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Note that the 'list' starts with 'high debt levels' and 'decrease in' still follows the parallel structure.

D.reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Use of reduction(an adverb) is not parallel with other items in the list.

E.reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Same problem as option D.

Hence option C.
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:52
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

The issue is with the list in the sentence. these lists must be parallel in structure and convey intended meaning

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
Use of phrase " decreasing of unemployment" is incorrect. This acts as Modifier and hence distorts the meaning.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreasesin unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
use of the verb form - decreases- is also incorrect.
and - is not separated by comma.


C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Corrects all the errors. CORRECT CHOICE

D. reductionin tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Introduced a new error - reduction in tax revenues. reducing is appropriately used.
Maintains same error - decreasing


E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Introduced a new error - reduction in tax revenues. reducing is appropriately used.

IMO C
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:57
IMO correct answer is E

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Breaks the parallelism, reducing & decreasing are verbs & these are not parallel with the nouns mentioned earlier.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same error as A
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same error as A; though now decrease in unemployment rates is used as noun but reducing is still not parallel
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Here it is reversed, reduction in tax revenues is now parallel but decreasing of unemployment rates is not.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:57
Lets get straight to the options

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels


Deacreasing of ...is a prepositional.pharse ,not parallel

Decreasing of unemployment rates is not idiomatic

Reducing tax revenue is also awkward ( seems they are reducing now )

Not A for sure

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

S-v error of decreases for rates ??

Then reducing tax again

Not B

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Everything is fine except "reducing "

Gone C


D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Decreasing of rates ?? Again

Gone D


E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Everything is good

All is fine

E for.me

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New post Updated on: 16 Jul 2019, 09:51
IMO A.

Question: Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Solving this with parallelism, the general context followed with verbs is -ing. Hence, this should be followed in the underlined part as well.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels [Parallelism followed, -ing connotation followed. Correct.]
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels [Parallelism is not followed, 'decreases' violates the rule of parallelism. Incorrect.]
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. [Parallelism is not followed, 'decreases' violates the rule of parallelism. Incorrect.]
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. [Parallelism is not followed, 'reduction' violates the rule of parallelism. Incorrect.]
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. [Parallelism is not followed, 'reduction' and 'decrease' violate the rule of parallelism. Incorrect.]

Originally posted by 05divya on 16 Jul 2019, 09:03.
Last edited by 05divya on 16 Jul 2019, 09:51, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:23
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. WRONG. "reducing" and "decreases"
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. WRONG. "reducing" and "decreases"
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. WRONG. "reduction" and "decreasing"
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. RIGHT. more preferable than A, because of uses noun
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:25
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels: decreasing of is not a proper phrase.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels: We should not use reduce as a gerund here, it should be used as a noun.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels: Again reducing is not a proper use here.
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels: decreasing of is not a proper phrase.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels: This uses proper phrase and noun. reduction in tax and a decrease in unemployment should be used.

IMO the answer is E.

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:26
Following three items are in list
1)high debt levels
2)reduction in tax revenues
3)decrease in unemployment rates
only E maintains the parallelism
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:26
The parallels include "high debt levels" and "defaulting loans". The verb "reducing" is not parallel to the nouns used in the first two examples, which cuts out A, B, and C. In the same line of logic, "decreasing" is not parallel and should be "decrease in" (this removes answer D).

E.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most   [#permalink] 16 Jul 2019, 09:26

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