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# Eminent economists believe that among the most

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Updated on: 17 Jul 2019, 01:23
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Meaning: eminent economists believe for looming recession lots of reason, which are given parallely. so we have to look for parallelism
Error analysis of A: parallelism are given in noun form high debt levels, defaulting ( here it is not verb , ) loans , reducing tax ( not verb form), and decreasing of ( not a verb form). hence it sounds correct parallelly. ( correct me if iam wrong, though immaterial here . all acts as adjectives, high, defaulting, reducing and decreasing.. , so they are parallel)

POE:

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels ( lets come back later)

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels ( decreases in ( a verb ) is not parallel . )

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels( decrease in ( a verb ) is not parallel )

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels ( reduction in tax revenues is a one time time event. Here what we need is a continuous phenomena, so the noun reduction distorts the meaning which the sentence intend to convey. plus the noun is not parallel to adjective . so its wrong)

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels ( reduction in tax revenues is a one time time event. Here what we need is a continuous phenomena, so the noun reduction distorts the meaning which the sentence intend to convey.plus the noun is not parallel to adjective so its wrong)

finally, coming back to a, it serves all our purpose hence the ans is A

PS. ANS IS FINE, LOGICALLY BTW DOES LOOMING SIGN OF RECESSION HAS DECREASING RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT???? THAT TOO IN EXTRAORDINARY LEVEL????????

Originally posted by ccheryn on 16 Jul 2019, 09:29.
Last edited by ccheryn on 17 Jul 2019, 01:23, edited 8 times in total.
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Updated on: 16 Jul 2019, 10:09
IMO A

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "and" has no comma before it, violating the parallelism. "decreases in A to B" is not correct, correct usage is "decreasing of A to B"

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "decreases in A to B" is not correct, correct usage is "decreasing of A to B"

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "reduction in tax revenues" is not parallel with "defaulting loans"

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease inunemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "reduction in tax revenues" is not parallel with "defaulting loans". "decreases in A to B" is not correct, correct usage is "decreasing of A to B"

Originally posted by rahaman26 on 16 Jul 2019, 09:35.
Last edited by rahaman26 on 16 Jul 2019, 10:09, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 09:44
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

here we have a parallelism issue.
First of all, what do we list?
high debt levels...defaulting loans...what's next? revenues are in line with our list. Thus D and E are out.
Choosing between A, B and C, I chose C, because gerund "decreasing" is not parallel to the list of nouns.
As for B, "decreases" used incorrectly, and also this choice does not have a comma.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --- gerund is not parallel
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --- where is a comma?
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --- This is the correct answer.
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - wrong as discussed above
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - wrong as discussed above

IMO C
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16 Jul 2019, 09:45
IMO-C

Brief:
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are
* high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments,
* defaulting loans and other delinquencies,
* reducing tax revenues,
* and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

1) SV Agreement- All Subjects are accounted with proper verb.. economists-- believe: Signs--are...
2) Tense- General statement, so use of present tense (believe / are ) is ok.
3) IDIOM- "decreasing of " is unidiomatic. Correct one is "Decrease in"
4) Pronoun- No pronoun.
5) Modifiers- No error.
6) Parallelism - All elements X,Y,Z & W are parallel.
7) Meaning- No Error

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels--- Incorrect---IDIOM
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels----Incorrect-- by dropping comma this changes meaning- combines the last two element into one suggesting there are in total 3 elements
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-- Correct
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels---Incorrect--IDIOM
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels--- Incorrect--Elements no longer parallel.
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16 Jul 2019, 10:04

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"Reducing" is wrong in A,B,C
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"Decreasing" is wrong.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
Correct.
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16 Jul 2019, 10:15
I feel it should be C.Reducing is correct and in parallel to "Defaulting" so options D&E goes out,Decreases in B so B goes out.Decrease in i feel is correct so C
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16 Jul 2019, 10:17
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

This sentence checks parallelism of signs.
'reducing tax revenues' is incorrect as we need a noun phrase and not a modifier and same goes for 'decreasing...' as well
So, A,B,C&D are out

Hence E

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
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16 Jul 2019, 10:29
The entities in comma must be parallel to each other and follow similar structure.

high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : decreasing of is unidiomatic
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : decreases in is unidiomatic
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : correct
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : decreasing of unidiomatic;
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels : reduction not parallel with defaulting
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16 Jul 2019, 10:41
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "high debt levels and optimistic sentiments..." should be made parallel with "reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates....". the phrase "defaulting loans and other delinquencies" is a modifier for "high debt levels and optimistic sentiments"
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism not correct and "decreases" is wrong and non-sensical.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism not correct
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - parallelism not correct
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - correct
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16 Jul 2019, 11:07
Signs are referred in a parallel list here. Reducing tax revenues is parallel to defaulting loans. Therefore eliminate D&E
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreasing of - is incorrect, ing word can either be an adjective or noun.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreases in is incorrect
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Correct
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect due to reason cited above
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to
Incorrect due to reason cited above

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16 Jul 2019, 13:33
I am not sure of my answer. Here is my thought process:

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Shortened version for easier analysis:
Prominent signs are debt levels, loans, revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates

Options prefixed with X are discarded...

XA. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
>> Decreasing OF is incorrect

XB. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
>>DecreasES is incorrect. Should be Decrease

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
>> This seems Correct. decrease in unemployement rates is parallel to other noun phrases

XD. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
>>Decreasing OF is incorrect

XE. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
>>This also seems correct, but reducing tax revenue is parallel to defaulting loans. So C seems better.

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16 Jul 2019, 15:54
here we have a list of signs of looming recession for an economy . It has to parallel list. lets evaluate each answer

Option Analysis :-
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Wrong :- reducing and decreasing is -ing verb here . We need noun
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Wrong :- reducing is still wrong as discussed in A
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Wrong :- same as B. though we see comma here but major issue is same
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Wrong :- decreasing is wrong here. Same as in A
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
correct
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 16:21
Parallelism.
Noun clause must be parallel to noun clause.
- high debt levels
- defaulting loans
- reduction in tax revenues
- decrease in unemployment

Only option E is correct
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16 Jul 2019, 17:52
correct verb would be decrease not decreasing so options A, D are out
out of B,C,E ; options B has decreases which is also wrong verb
amog c & e ; e has verb reduction which is not ll to looming and defaulting

IMO C; reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels ; correct

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
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16 Jul 2019, 17:53
defaulting.... , reducing...., decreasing...
Parallelism is maintained only in A.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 20:30
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Error Analysis :
Eminent economists believe that
among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are
high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments,
defaulting loans and other delinquencies,
reducing tax revenues, and
decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

decreasing of unemployment is not parallel with the rest of the thing . So we need to change it

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-Incorrect
Not parallel with rest of the elements

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Incorrect
Unemployment rates is plural so use of decreases is wrong

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-correct
Correct use of parallelism , and conveys correct meaning

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-Incorrect
reduction in revenue is not same as reducing revenue , there is a subtle meaning change there

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-Incorrect
reduction in revenue is not same as reducing revenue , there is a subtle meaning change there

Option C is the Correct Answer
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Updated on: 22 Jul 2019, 01:05
Analyzing the sentence we find that there are three signs of looming recession-
1. high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, which result in defaulting loans and other delinquencies
2. reduction in tax revenues. (This is not a result of defaulting loans. This is the second sign. So it cannot be a verb-ing).
3. A decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. (This is not a result of reducing tax revenues. This is the third sign. So it cannot be a verb-ing).

Let us examine the rest:

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Eliminated due to the above-mentioned errors.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Eliminated due to the above-mentioned errors.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Eliminated due to the above-mentioned errors.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Eliminated due to the above-mentioned errors.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Corrects all the errors.

Originally posted by Sayon on 16 Jul 2019, 21:32.
Last edited by Sayon on 22 Jul 2019, 01:05, edited 2 times in total.
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16 Jul 2019, 21:47
Most prominent signs are .... high debt levels (adjective + noun) , defaulting loans (verbing+noun, here present particle acts as adjective)

reducing tax revenues v/s reduction in tax revenues
reducing tax revenue - verbing + noun -> present participle acts as adjective
reduction in -> is the noun , that describes there was reduction in total revenue.
As we are describing the actions from the previous parallelism indicators -> reducing is parallel

Decreasing/Decrease - can act as verb or noun
e.g. That resulted in decrease in (noun form) expenses or prices have decreased (verb)
Decrease in something indicates noun form of decrease
Decreasing of -> is not the right form of decrease either in capacity of verb or noun because of 'of' . Decreasing itself is a verb or present participle of decrease. we can say decreasing rates

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
is not correct because of decreasing of

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
this one mentions plural form of "decreases" suggesting multiple decreases in rates ; that changes the original meaning.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing and decrease in -> both are parallel and are in correct form

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing is parallel to other elements, decreasing of is not the correct form.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing is parallel to other elements

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16 Jul 2019, 22:26
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. Correct

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

C is correct
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2019, 22:33
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Eliminate A

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Eliminate B

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct[/color]

D.[color=#ed1c24] reduction in tax revenues
, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Eliminate

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Eliminate

Ans Choice C - CORRECT
Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most   [#permalink] 16 Jul 2019, 22:33

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