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Eminent economists believe that among the most

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 23:35
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreasing is correct. no need to add "of"....................................................eliminated.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
it should be "decrease" not decreases.........................................................eliminated.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
looks alright......................................................................................correct.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"Reducing" and other reason same as "A".......................................................eliminated.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
"Reducing tax revenues" is correct. Since it is the on going process................eliminated.


ANSWER: C
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 00:32
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
parallel structure error since all have to be noun/noun phrase

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (not parallel to defaulting loans.....etc.)
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (not parallel to the above)
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (nope!)
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (not parallel)
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (Correct)

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New post 17 Jul 2019, 01:04
Error Analysis: 'decreasing of unemployment rates' is incorrect. "decrease in unemployment rate' is the right form. ' reduction in tax revenues' is much better than 'reducing tax revenues', and conveys the right meaning.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -Incorrect
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Incorrect
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels Incorrect
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-Incorrect
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -Correct

Ans:E
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 03:19
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

We need to check parallelism amongst the signs of looming recession :

    high debt levels
    defaulting loans and other delinquencies
    reducing tax revenues
    decreasing of unemployment rates

A & D are out because of "of".

Now, Between B, C & E, the decision point is:
    reducing tax revenues
    OR
    reduction in tax revenues

reducing tax revenues seems correct.

The difference between B & C : the plural "decreases" vs singular and C has a comma before and.

I would go with (C)

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 03:22
The correct answer is B. This because it is parallel to the the other signs of a looming recession expressed in earlier on.
In option A, decreasing of unemployment rates should have been decreasing unemployment rates. Of used after decreasing is not appropriate. In C, decrease should rather be decreases. D has same issue as A. E is not parallel.

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New post 17 Jul 2019, 03:25
Answer is E
Since we have conjunction "and" in underlined part, we are dealing with parallelism and both sides of "and" must be parallel. In original sentence, A, reducing and decreasing of are not parallel, which is wrong. In B, we observe similar case since reducing is not parallel to decrease. C makes the same mistake by not holding reducing and decrease parallel. D is much better than all other options but still makes error by not holding reduction and decreasing parallel. Only E keeps parallelism reduction and decrease.
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 03:53
Answer A
A is correct as it maintains parallelism,but other options lack of this
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 05:36
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels (ANSWER)

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New post 17 Jul 2019, 06:24
This is a typical parallelism question. It is to be noted that 'defaulting loans' is a noun with a modifier. The element of concern in this parallel list is 'loans' (noun).

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - reducing and decreasing (-ing verbs) are not parallel to sentiments and loans (nouns).

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - reducing (-ing verb) and decreases (simple present verb) are not parallel to sentiments and loans (nouns).

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - reducing (-ing verb) is not parallel to sentiments and loans (nouns).

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - decreasing (-ing verb) is not parallel to sentiments and loans (nouns).

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Correct. Reduction and decrease are nouns, and are parallel to the list.
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 07:09
IMO E

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -> reducing and decreasing are not parallel with the first two items in the list
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -> reducing and decreases are not parallel to each other
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -> reducing and decrease are not parallel
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -> reduction and decreasing are not parallel
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels -> reduction in tax revenues and decrease in unemployment rates are parallel with the other items in the list
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 07:26
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
incorrect usage of idiom
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Correct option
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
incorrect usage of idiom and parallelism not kept intact
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
parallelism not kept intact
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 07:39
Actually, signs of looming recession are illustrated in answer choices, not modifying the whole sentence. Therefore,

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect. -ing form could modify the whole sentences. It should be a noun.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect. The same as A. Also, -ing and noun cannot be matched

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect. The same as B.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect. 'Reduction...' and 'Decreasing...' should be parallel.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Correct. Nouns are parallel.

The answer choice is E.
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 07:40
Actually, signs of looming recession are illustrated in answer choices, not modifying the whole sentence. Therefore,

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect. -ing form could modify the whole sentences. It should be a noun.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect. The same as A. Also, -ing and noun cannot be matched

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect. The same as B.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Incorrect. 'Reduction...' and 'Decreasing...' should be parallel.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Correct. Nouns are parallel.

The answer choice is E.
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New post 17 Jul 2019, 08:29
santorasantu wrote:
IMO answer is E:

the sentence reads as follows
most prominent signs are....
obviously reducing does not fit, so, A,B and C can be eliminated.
out of D and E, decreasing of is no correct to express the sign. furthermore, looking at parallelism, reduction...and decrease is the right parallel structure.

so E it is


Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels


I have a very fundamental (dumb) doubt. Decrease is a verb but decrease in is a noun ? How do I identify a noun phrase ? Thanks for your help

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New post 28 Jul 2019, 23:28
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

my question here is

is the parallels are adjective + noun phrase

but many are saying its noun phrase.. but i think its not

first two adjective+ noun phrase

next two ( AS PER CORRECT CHOICE) are just noun phrase.

are these are actully parallel? any similar og questions available which shows this kind of parallels.??

where i am wrong here
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New post 30 Jul 2019, 08:34
JonShukhrat

Thank you very much I took a day to study all your concepts multiple times in multiple questions,

i have two doubts please correct me if i am wrong

1 st question:

https://gmatclub.com/forum/recently-imp ... 79239.html

This question there is no adjective + noun phrase to get confused in this parallelism, all are direct nouns, I mean

have reduced
sickness, ( noun)
sleeping on the job, (gerund, which infact noun)
fatigue among shift workers( fatique is abstract noun)

This is direct OG question, in this I don’t have any confusion,

Next the other two

2. https://gmatclub.com/forum/symptoms-of- ... l#p2312856
Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction to a bee sting may include dizziness, hives or rashes, swelling of the wound, difficulty breathing, intense itching, and losing consciousness

Correct choice :
swelling of the wound, difficulty breathing, an intense itch, and loss of

Yeah what generis explains is losing consciousness is action noun but losing is more close to verb than rest of others

( I am yet to feel or differentiate how generis explains this)
But as far as I understood,

I tried to understand by using "have "
Symptoms will have
dizziness,
Rashes,
Swelling
Difficulty breathing
Itching
But cant explain losing consciousness like that it wont fit( ie symptoms will have losing consciousness) hence wrong

( correct me if I am wrong in my understanding)

So the above example is also fine


( my first doubt)

Except for one explanation by generis

[b]generis
explains as this

Losing in this context is not a "regular" noun, and of the __ING words in each option, "losing" is the most verb-like of the words. Losing
-- immediately takes the direct object consciousness. Verbs take direct objects.

But even gerunds take direct object sometimes

• I delayed telling Jerry the bad news.
• Bill avoided doing his math assignment because the World Series was on.

So how can we differentiate "more verb like" noun to "action noun" by considering only this
[/b]




3rd question https://gmatclub.com/forum/ornithologis ... l#p2288169

Ornithologists report that signs of a predator in your bluebird houses may include broken eggs in and around the nest, missing eggs or nestlings, pulling the nesting material partially through the house entrance, and building a new nest on top of the old one.

Approached same formula, said signs will "have"

broken eggs,
missing eggs
nesting material
new nest

So pulling and building are out( gerunds wont fit here)

And able to pick to right option, no confusion





Generis says

Almost without exception, concrete nouns in a list may be paired only with other concrete nouns.
(Very rarely, concrete nouns may be paired with gerunds. We should try to avoid this pairing.)



Take aways from the above examples
Concrete noun to be paried with concrete noun
Abstract noun can be paired with action noun ( ie 1. adjective + noun , 2. gerunds)



Now coming back to this example
In the same logic if I go

And if I rewrite

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt , defaulting loans , reducing tax revenues, and decreasing unemployment rates .




( my second doubt) My question here is can above be parallel .

Reducing tax revenues is also ( adjective + noun) and
decreasing unemployment also ( adjective + noun)

all are similar to defaulting loans ( adjective + noun)
high debt ( adjective + noun)

As if I say signs will "have"
reducing tax revenues
decreasing unemployment
defaulting loans
high debt


All matches here unlike the above 3 examples..
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New post 12 Aug 2019, 02:52
ccheryn wrote:
( my first doubt)

Except for one explanation by generis

[b]generis
explains as this

Losing in this context is not a "regular" noun, and of the __ING words in each option, "losing" is the most verb-like of the words. Losing
-- immediately takes the direct object consciousness. Verbs take direct objects.

But even gerunds take direct object sometimes

• I delayed telling Jerry the bad news.
• Bill avoided doing his math assignment because the World Series was on.

So how can we differentiate "more verb like" noun to "action noun" by considering only this
[/b]


Hi JonShukhrat, thanks you very much indeed man, for your response once again. i enjoyed your findings, and i learned a lot in this process

many doubts got claried ,



just paraphrasing.. for the above doubt,

i will take as this, verb and gerunds do take direct objects, so if at all noun form can be written for a verb we should take that.. nice take away

as long as once is not concreted noun, always look for noun form of the verb rather than gerunds..

awesome clarified and nailed. thanks you very much

BUT DONT DEFAULTING FALLS IN THIS CATEGORY, as default noun form is there but as it is in the non underlined portion we are ignoring, but rather than defaulting loans, if it reads as default of loans, i wudnt have confused so much..


ccheryn wrote:
( my second doubt) My question here is can above be parallel .

Reducing tax revenues is also ( adjective + noun) and
decreasing unemployment also ( adjective + noun)

all are similar to defaulting loans ( adjective + noun)
high debt ( adjective + noun)

As if I say signs will "have"
reducing tax revenues
decreasing unemployment
defaulting loans
high debt



just paraphrasing, as the noun forms are always better than gerunds, even if the above choice is present, noun form will overtake the other forms...

THANKS JON, thank you very much for taking pain to explain giving your time.
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New post 15 Aug 2019, 04:43
JonShukhrat,

its bullseye mate....

I am having Eureka moment, perfect understood completely i mean it.... what an explanation... i want to give 100 Kudos.. for this......

Frankly u r an expert now ( in my eyes you are above many experts) .. i have also asked the doubt to few gmat instructors ( will PM you the name )... they failed to differentiate.

All have told for the second doubt, it is correct.. ( ie i can write as above as adjective + noun)

ie they identified reducing tax as adjective + noun along with others ..... they failed to see the concept of intransitive vs transitive... MAN YOU NAILED IT.

thank you very much indeed for taking the pain to explain with such a long example... will go through all the similar examples in this eye now, then will come back.

so this answered my other confusion also. so checked it. hurray! default is an intransitive verb.. so almost all doubts are rectified.( this is the major confusion if defaulting is right why not reducing)..

except one

(default i saw as both transitive and intransitive depending on usage and for borrowers / tenants they mentioned it as intransitive)

ie Defaulting borrowers/tenants... here defaulting is intransitive

but loan cannot default on its own..

transitive verb
1 : to fail to perform, pay, or make good default a loan

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/default

so default a loan, default on loan is the usage i have seen everywhere.. so i think defaulting loan ( transitive usage) is wrong in the same way..

A loan cannot default on its own.. somebody has to default the loan..

am i right????

thanks
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