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Eminent economists believe that among the most

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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

 

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:53
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By analyzing the intended meaning,
(1) there are three signs, which are: high debts, reduction of tax revenues (not the tax by itself), decrease of unemployment rate (not the employment rate by itself)
(2) "high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments "caused "defaulting loans and other delinquencies"

split (1): reducing vs reduction:
using "reducing", a participial phrase parallel to "defaulting", incorrectly conveys that high debt levels leads to reduced tax revenues.
"reduction", as a noun, coveys the intended meaning my making it parallel to "debts" ---> A,B,C out
so (among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are ...... reduction of tax (reducing tax)

split (2): decreasing vs decreases vs decrease:
decreases : completely wrong because it has no parallel antecedent or valid subject. --> B out
decreasing: participial phrase that repeats the mistake of "reducing" we mentioned above. --> A,D out
decrease: a noun that is correctly parallel to debts and reduction before it.

E
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Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 17 Jul 2019, 04:18
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The structure of the sentence: ...signs of looming recession are A, a1 and a2, B, and C.

A, B, and C are three signs of looming recession:
A - high debt levels
B - reduction in tax revenues
C - decrease in unemployment rates

a1 and a2 are two example of A.
a1 - defaulting loans
b1 - other delinquencies

In other words defaulting loans and other delinquencies are two examples of high debt levels. The first item A of the list is a regular noun. Accordingly, in order to maintain the parallelism we want B and C to be regular nouns too. With this in mind let’s analyze answer choices.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates

Both reducing and decreasing are not regular nouns. Since reducing takes a direct object tax revenues, it connotes a lot of action. Reduction is preferable. Note that reducing tax revenues is not the same thing as declining tax revenues. Reducing is not a modifier as declining is. Reducing is a simple gerund here. Decrease is more close to noun than decreasing is.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Reducing is not regular nouns. Since reducing takes a direct object tax revenues, it connotes a lot of action. Reduction is preferable. Decrease is uncountable when we talk about an amount of something.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Reducing is not regular nouns. Since reducing takes a direct object tax revenues, it connotes a lot of action. Reduction is preferable.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Decrease is more close to noun than decreasing is.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Both reduction and decrease are close to regular nouns and thus can be parallel to levels.

Hence E
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Originally posted by JonShukhrat on 16 Jul 2019, 08:56.
Last edited by JonShukhrat on 17 Jul 2019, 04:18, edited 2 times in total.
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New post 29 Jul 2019, 06:00
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ccheryn wrote:
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

my question here is

is the parallels are adjective + noun phrase

but many are saying its noun phrase.. but i think its not

first two adjective+ noun phrase

next two ( AS PER CORRECT CHOICE) are just noun phrase.

are these are actully parallel? any similar og questions available which shows this kind of parallels.??

where i am wrong here


Hi ccheryn,

Let’s first understand what a noun phrase is. A noun phrase consists of a noun or a pronoun and any noun modifiers describing this noun or pronoun.

I. Often a noun phrase is just a noun or a pronoun:

- People like to have money. (People is a noun and simultaneously a noun phrase here)
- I am tired. (I is a pronoun and simultaneously a noun phrase here)


II. A noun phrase can also include determiners, quantifiers, numbers, and adjectives:

- Those houses are expensive. (Those is a determiner that describes houses)
- I’ve lived in a lot of houses. (a lot of is a quantifier that describes houses)
- My brother owns two houses. (two is a number that describes houses)
- I love old houses. (old is an adjective that describes houses)


III. Some noun phrases have a noun modifier coming after the noun it modifies:

1. Prepositional phrases:

- a man with a gun
- the boy in the blue shirt

2. ing phrases

- the man standing over there
- the boy talking to Angela

3. Relative clauses

- the man we met yesterday
- the houses that Jack built
- the woman who discovered radium


A noun phrase may have more than one modifier coming before and after the noun:

- an eight-year old boy with a gun _ who tried to rob a sweet shop

As you see, a noun phrase may include different types of modifiers, not only adjectives or prepositional phrases. What is interesting is that a noun itself alone can also be a noun phrase. Considering all the above, let’s analyze our question.

There are four signs of looming recession:

- high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments
- defaulting loans and other delinquencies
- reduction in tax revenues
- decrease in unemployment rates

If to be literal, there are five nouns such as levels, loans, delinquencies, reduction, and decrease that must be parallel. Three initial nouns such as levels, loans, and delinquencies are abstract nouns. The last two nouns such as reduction and decrease are action nouns. Abstract nouns CAN be parallel with action nouns. Thus levels, loans, and delinquencies are parallel to reduction and decrease. Notice that all elements of the parallelism are noun phrases:

1. high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments (noun phrase) = adjective + noun adjective + noun + prepositional phrase. So, the levels of what? Debt levels. What kind of debt levels? High debt levels. What kind of high debt levels? High debt levels amid optimistic sentiments.

2. defaulting loans and other delinquencies. Why defaulting loans and other delinquencies are taken as a single sign? That’s because defaulting loans are one type of delinquencies or examples of delinquencies. For example, when you say A cocktail from fresh apples and other fruits, you mean that apple is one example of fruits. Similarly when you say defaulting loans and other delinquencies, you mean that the first is an example of the second.

defaulting loans (noun phrase) = adjective + noun. Defaulting is an adjective and means not paid yet. So, what kind of loans? Not yet paid loans or defaulting loans. Contrary to most posts in this thread, this part of the sentence high debt levels..., defaulting loans doesn’t meant that high debt levels cause defaulting loans. That’s not true. If any country has high debt levels, that doesn’t necessarily mean that loans are not paid. People may borrow a lot and pay back on time. So that interpretation is not true. However, these two situations may occur together when people borrow a lot but can’t pay back. These two situations together may lead to the third, recession.

other delinquencies (noun phrase) = determiner + noun. Delinquency means neglecting of one’s duty. Defaulting loans also means neglecting a duty to pay back the loan. So they are the same type of things.

3. reduction in tax revenues (noun phrase) = noun + prepositional phrase. So, what kind of reduction? Reduction in tax revenues.

4. decrease in unemployment rates (noun phrase) = noun + prepositional phrase. So, what kind of decrease? Decrease in unemployment rates.

As you see, all four signs of a recession or all five elements of a parallelism are noun phrases and they are parallel.

Similar OG problem you may find helpful: https://gmatclub.com/forum/recently-imp ... 79239.html

This post contains a brilliant explanation from generis that will show you how different parallel nouns can be: https://gmatclub.com/forum/symptoms-of- ... l#p2312856

For more about a noun phrase please visit here: https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org ... un-phrases
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:25
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IMO answer is E:

the sentence reads as follows
most prominent signs are....
obviously reducing does not fit, so, A,B and C can be eliminated.
out of D and E, decreasing of is no correct to express the sign. furthermore, looking at parallelism, reduction...and decrease is the right parallel structure.

so E it is


Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 12:34
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.



Meaning:


1. Eminent economists believe
2. That among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are:
________1) high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments,
________2) defaulting loans and other delinquencies,
________3) reducing tax revenues,
________4) decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Errors:


Attachment:
A.PNG
A.PNG [ 66.43 KiB | Viewed 254 times ]


Quite tough question, I would say +700 :-D

To get meaning correct gives us a change to answer correctly.
On the meaning analysis I haven't delve into 'reducing/reduction' and 'decrease/decreasing' difference.
Once you've read original sentence, 'reducing' seems quite acceptable here, but 'decreasing of' is awful. :hurt:
This question is not exactly testing the idiom usage here, and idioms are not always taken as decision point, so let's go for POE to examine the splits


POE:



First split between 'reducing' and 'reduction':

'reducing' - that causes reduction (acts as a verb and as an adjective)
'reduction' - the act, process, or result of reducing (acts as a noun)

So as a prominent sign of economic recession 'reduction' - are better suitable as result of reducing process of taxes.
(A), (B), and (C) can be eliminated.

Second split between 'decreasing of' and 'decrease in':

From idiom stand point, 'of' and 'in' can be correct depending on the context:
Sales were $640 million for the quarter, a decrease of 11%.
I haven’t noticed any decrease in ticket sales.

But generally when we want to say the process of growing progressively less we use 'decrease in'
So (A) and (D) can be eliminated.

(B) is out because of wrong parallel list, we need 'comma' before the last 'and'

So we left with (E) as a correct answer.
List of 4 noun entities are properly connected, adjectives modifying first two entities can be ellipsed for sake of identifying the core // list.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels


E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Attachment:
E.PNG
E.PNG [ 74.84 KiB | Viewed 255 times ]


E is the answer. :heart
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:29
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Before moving to the answer choices, let's understand the meaning of the sentence.
According to Eminent economists - most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are
1)high debt levels
2)reduction in tax revenues
3)decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

This is a classic question of parallelism and hence all the things mentioned must be parallel.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
This choice is incorrect as it is not parallel.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
This choice is incorrect as it is not parallel.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
This choice is incorrect as it is not parallel.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
This choice is incorrect as it is not parallel.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and a decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
This choice is the correct answer.

Another way for POE is: Decrease of incorrect. A decrease in is correct since it is referring to rates.


The answer choice is E.
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New post Updated on: 16 Jul 2019, 10:55
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Quote:
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels


This is a parallelism question wherein all the parallel elements are noun forms
SPLIT : "reducing tax revenues" vs " reduction in tax revenues"
"reducing tax revenues" is wrong as it is not a noun phrase. Option A, B, C are out.
POE:
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> Incorrect grammar
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> comma missing before and. Also incorrect parallelism
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> Incorrect grammar
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels--> Perfect Parallelism and also grammatically correct

Option E is the answer

Originally posted by techloverforever on 16 Jul 2019, 08:30.
Last edited by techloverforever on 16 Jul 2019, 10:55, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 08:42
1
Quote:
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels


Meaning: economists believe that the most prominent signs of looming recession are {a list of things…}

First of all, the intent is that a "reduction in tax revs" or a reduction in tax collected is a sign, not "reducing tax revs" which means for instance, tax reform, etc… (this could be a good thing for the economy); so, (A,B,C) out.

Secondly, "decreasing of rates" is nonsense, the intent is that another sign is a "decrease in" or a fall in unemployment rates; so (D) out.

Answer (E).
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:05
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This answer to this question is determined using the principle of parallelism.

Since ... high debts level..., must be in parallel with ...tax revenues... and ...unemployment rates...
Therefore "A", "B" and "C" are eliminated based on the fact they wrongly became parallel to ...defaulting loans... which is a modifier to ...high debts levels amid optimistic sentiments...

"D" and "E" used "reduction" which is in parallel to ...high debt levels... based on the same tenses.

"D" made the parallelism mistake by introducing the last part of the sentence with "decreasing"

Answer choice E is the correct answer

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:06
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This is parallelism questions.

The parallel list will contain the signs of looming recession of which 3 are listed
1) high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments
2) reduction in tax revenues
3) decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

>>"defaulting loans and other delinquencies" is a modifier and modifying the 1st element of the list "high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments"

On the basis of above reasoning. A,B, C are out as they are unparallel

D - and decreasing making the list unparallel.

Hence, E is the answer.
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:12
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Meaning of the sentence:
Eminent economists believe that following are most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy:
1) high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments
2) defaulting loans and other delinquencies
3) reduction in tax revenues
4) decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels

Items 1) and 2) are nouns, and are part of non-underlined portion. Hence, items 3) and 4) should also be nouns in order to make the list parallel.

Errors:
1) decreasing of unemployment rates
2) reducing tax revenues

Answer: E
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:14
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Using the POE to determine the correct answer:

Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - reducing tax revenue and decreasing of are not parallel to other items in the list which are noun phrases. Eliminate A
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same parallelism issue here as in A, decreases is both not parallel in its verb form to rest of the items in the list and also uses the present continuous verb form which is inappropriate for the sentence which is trying to enlist prominent signs of recessions. B is out.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Same parallelism issue as in B, i.e. reducing tax is not parallel to the remaining items in the list. C can go
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - decreasing of is somewhat wordy and awkward and also might raise parallelism issues. Lets lose D.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Perfect! All items on the list of major signs of recession are parallel to each other, decrease in is a better more succinct way of saying decreasing of as in option D. E is the best choice here.

Correct choice is E.
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:19
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates are not correctly parallel to the list. Incorrect

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates are not correctly parallel to the list. Incorrect

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates are not correctly parallel to the list. Incorrect

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates are not correctly parallel to the list. Incorrect

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates is an example of correct parallelism. Correct
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. is a correct sentence.


IMO E
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:37
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

Simple sentence: among the signs are debt levels, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates--> inverted sentence: debt levels, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates are among the signs

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> not parallel: need proper noun(debt levels), proper noun/complex gerund, & proper noun/complex gerund
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> same as A
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> same as A
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> same as A
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels --> correct
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:37
1
Quote:
Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.


In this sentence correction (SC) question, we need to devote attention to the parallelism rule. Let us have a closer look at the options and identify which one is more relevant:
A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - "reducing" and "decreasing" are not parallel to "high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies", thus this option is not the best suite Incorrect
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Here, again, as in the previous option "reducing" is not parallel to the previous part of the sentence. In addition, "decreases" is a verb, which makes the sentence awkward. Incorrect
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Here, as in both previous options, the word "reducing" is not in the parallel form to the first part of the sentence. Incorrect
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - Even though the correct form of the word "reduce" is used here, the word "decreasing" is not parallel to all previous part of the sentence. Incorrect
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels - In this version of the sentence parallelism is adhered to, sentence is clean and concise. - Correct
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New post 16 Jul 2019, 09:48
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.
Meaning Analysis:


Error analysis:


A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Incorrect.There is a parallelism error in his sentence. Reducing is present participle. a noun form , reduction, would do the trick here. also the phrase decreasing of unemployment rates is incorrect.
B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- . Incorrect.Same error as explained in A. Also, We cannot say decreases in rates. it should be decrease in rates.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels-Incorrect. Same error as explained in A about reducing.
D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Incorrect. The word reduction is parallel to the list however, as explained in choice A, decreasing of unemployment rates is incorrect.
E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels- Perfectly maintains the parallel structure, and correctly conveys the meaning of the sentence.
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 10:03
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A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Both parts are ing modifiers and as a whole, we get 3 ing modifiers, but per my understanding, we need something parallel to " high debt levels"
decrease "of" is incorrect and "in" is corrects, but I cant assure you about this

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
not parallel at all, we have two ing modifiers in a row: defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, wrong
"decreases" is a verb for the singular noun, wrong

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
we have two ing modifiers in a row: "defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues" wrong

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
decreasing is an ing modifier and is used incorrectly with "and"
"reduction in tax revenues" is parallel to " high debt levels" but not connected properly with conjuction

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
We have got a list:
" high debt levels"
"reduction in tax revenues"
"decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels"
connected with "and"

IMO
Ans: E
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Re: Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2019, 10:16
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Eminent economists believe that among the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy are high debt levels amid optimistic sentiments, defaulting loans and other delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. Incorrect. There is a parallelism error in reducing tax revenue and decreasing of unemployement.Reducing here is in present continuous which is wrong. Also "decreasing of" is wrong.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.Incorrect.Same error as in A.Also " decreases in" is wrong usage.
C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. Incorrect. Usage of" reducing" is wrong

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels. Incorrect . "Decreasing of " is wrong usage.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels.Correct.No parallelism error between reduction and decrease. Usage of decrease in is correct.
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Eminent economists believe that among the most  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 17 Jul 2019, 01:45
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This sentence describes some of the most prominent signs of looming recession for an economy: (1) high debt levels, (2) loans and other delinquencies, (3) reduction in tax revenues, and (4) decrease in unemployment rates.
The non-underlined portion features the first two items in the list ("high debt levels..." and "defaulting loans and other delinquencies"), both of which are nouns.

A. reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
High debt levels, defaulting loans and delinquencies, reducing tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates are not parallel. Though the "-ing" words could be modifiers or nouns (also known as gerunds), there is no clear indication that reducing tax revenues and decreasing of unemployment rates are nouns. If the reducing of tax revenues and the decreasing of unemployment rates are used, then these are parallel nouns, though wordy.

B. reducing tax revenues and decreases in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Similar parallelism issue as in (A). There is no clear indication that reducing tax revenues is a noun. If either the reducing of tax revenues or reduction in tax revenues is used, then this is a parallel noun.

C. reducing tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Same parallelism issue as in (B). There is no clear indication that reducing tax revenues is a noun. If either the reducing of tax revenues or reduction in tax revenues is used, then this is a parallel noun.

D. reduction in tax revenues, and decreasing of unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
Similar parallelism issue as in (A). There is no clear indication that decreasing of unemployment rates is a noun. If either decrease in unemployment rates or the decreasing of unemployment rates is used, then this is a parallel noun.

E. reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates to extraordinary levels
CORRECT ANSWER. High debt levels, defaulting loans and delinquencies, reduction in tax revenues, and decrease in unemployment rates are parallel. They are all presented in clear and concise manner.


Answer is (E)

Originally posted by chondro48 on 16 Jul 2019, 10:22.
Last edited by chondro48 on 17 Jul 2019, 01:45, edited 1 time in total.
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Eminent economists believe that among the most   [#permalink] 16 Jul 2019, 10:22

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