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# Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that

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Re: Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2013, 09:10
3
fozzzy wrote:
Can someone provide a detailed analysis on this one. Thanks!

Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

We can eliminate B because it uses "it" to refer back to "costs".

A- less than they did
C- less than they were
D- lower than
E- lower than they were

If we use "were", the sentence makes no sense:

Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in September, slightly less than they were in the year ...

We want to compare two rates; but this sentence compares a rate(costs rose up) to a static state (verb "to be": costs were)
Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in September, slightly less than they were(say 10,000\$) in the year ...<== no sense comparison

C and E are out. D is not a complete comparison: "lower than (what?) in the year that ended ...". A is correct, and it compares how the costs rose (two growth rates):

Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did(=rose) in the year that ended in the previous quarter.
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Re: Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2014, 13:00
Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

A- less than they did
B- less than it did
C- less than they were
D- lower than
E- lower than they were

Let's use some splits for this one

Rose up is redundant

Eliminate A,B,C,D and E

J/K but if this is indeed from GMAT prep...that's a nasty mistake there

Anways we need less not lower so D,E are out
Between A,B,C
Costs are plural so B is out
Were is wrong verb so C is out

A stands

Hope it helps
Cheers!
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Re: Employment costs rose up 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2014, 04:31
Are you sure the source of this question is GMAT Prep?
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2014, 17:34
1
ammuseeru wrote:
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There is no OA for this question. Is it official GMAT question ?

Please remember ---Lower cannot be used with countable things.
Lower is used to compare numbers, rates, percentages,ranks, ideas ,uncountable nouns (amount of money in my bank account is lower than that in yours).etc

Here 'employment costs' is uncountable hence both less and lower could have worked but for using lower than we need some noun to follow the the comparison in the second part of the sentence...costs rose 2.8 percent lower than the percent for .. This isn't the case here. So we can drop D and E options.

Among A,B,C .
B is out since the plural costs does not agree with pronoun it
In option A and C --->Did vs Were .
A wins because we can't use were (option C) unless there was some other " to be"verb (was, were, am ,is ) to match/parallel it in the previous part of the sentence. Hence we use the action verb did (do)
Hope this helps.

For a more detailed discussion: http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/emp ... t6388.html
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2014, 17:44
1
calvinhobbes wrote:
Thanks for the reply. Kudos to all!

One follow-up question: I thought percent is countable and should be used with lower rather than less?

Thanks

Any noun you can count ..say 1,2..10..100 is countable
1 boy, 10 points, 5% , 20 chocolates, -all countable

Rice,Sugar, joy, taxes, amount of money, heat --all uncountable

But when you say :
1 kg sugar, 15 1\$ bills, 15 degree celsius temperature --then it becomes countable.

Please NOTE : you cannot use lower with countable things.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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20 May 2015, 05:02
jjhko wrote:
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

A. less than they did
B. less than it did
C. less than they were
D. lower than
E. lower than they were

Could someone also explain what the difference is between A and C?

Thank,
jjhko

Understand what is compared.
Do actions are compared or Do facts are compared?
Action of rising in one year is compared with action of rising in another year (previous year).
Hence we need ‘to do verb’ in the answer choice.

Only A & B has ‘to do verb’.
B makes pronoun agreement error (refers costs with it)
Hence, A is the correct choice.

As I always say - focus on meaning!

Cheers!
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2016, 19:31
If there were an answer "less than it had done", Could i consider it a more correct answer than the OA ??????
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2016, 06:26
thanhphong01 wrote:
If there were an answer "less than it had done", Could i consider it a more correct answer than the OA ??????

I think NO.
you can not consider "less than it had done" as a correct answer at all

Firstly, it is wrong. The Employment costs are plural. and it is singular pronoun

Secondly , Question stem says - Employment costs rose2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September
Now that you are going to apply ellipsis , the long predicate must be replaced by did or did so. It will only take helping verb when the First part contains a verb that is accompanied by a helping verb ("Had" in this instance")

Nevertheless this is the not primary here. "It" should not be used in this context.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2016, 03:48
thanhphong01 wrote:
If there were an answer "less than it had done", Could i consider it a more correct answer than the OA ??????

Tryambak's explanation above is nice. However I shall try to elaborate further on the topic:

You may use helping verbs later in a sentence to replace longer verbs or verb phrases used in the initial portion of the sentence.

Wordy: I have never played football, but he has played football.
Correct: I have never played football, but he has.

OR

Wordy: I never played football, but he played football.
Correct: I never played football, but he did.

Please note that in such cases both the instances of the verbs should generally have the same tense. The first example above uses past perfect..past perfect. The second uses simple past.. simple past.

Therefore "less than they had done" may not be a correct answer, and should be written as "less than they had risen".

Another subtle point to note:

Your observation that a past perfect is a better choice than a simple past (on the basis of that the previous action happened before the latter action) may not be correct - the rising in the year ended previous quarter did not happen exclusively before the year ended this September. To illustrate this scenario, please understand the following:

Year ended previous quarter: July, previous year----> June, this year (1st July, previous year to 30th June, this year)
Year ended this September: October,previous year ------> September, this year (1st October previous year to 30th September, this year)

There has been overlap of 9 months between the 2 periods compared - viz., October, previous year to June, this year (1st October, previous year to 30th June, this year). Therefore use of past perfect for the previous period is not correct.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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29 May 2016, 01:57
1
danzig wrote:
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.
A, less than they did
B, less than it did
C, less than they were
D, lower than
E, lower than they were

What is wrong with D? What is the difference between "less" and "lower"? :s

Thanks!

D is wrong because
d mean "Lower than cost rose in the year". this is infered from elipsis.
cost rose 2 percent this year lower than costs rose that year. wrong, lower can not used to compare actions.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2017, 20:27
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

A. less than they did - Correct
B. less than it did - usage of it to refer to costs is incorrect
C. less than they were - parallelism issue
D. lower than - If you wanted to use "lower than" correctly, you would need a noun in the second part of the comparison (e.g. "2.8% is lower than the percent for last quarter). D has no noun in the second part of the comparison
E. lower than they were - (E) has "they" = costs, which is the wrong noun, in the second part of the comparison.

The only difference between (A) and (C) is the verb. Consider parallelism with the other verbs that share the subject.

(A) Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in ..., slightly less than they (employment costs) did in ...
(C) Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in ..., slightly less than they (employment costs) were in ...

The active verb "rose" parallels the active "did." There's a name for this: proform. Basically, "did" replaces "rose" in much the same way that a pronoun might replace a noun. It is understood that "did" = "rose."
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2018, 22:07
Why can't we drop the verb(rose/did) and choose D as the right answer?We can omit verb in comparison.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2018, 00:12
techiesam wrote:
Why can't we drop the verb(rose/did) and choose D as the right answer?We can omit verb in comparison.

Hi techiesam, indeed the issue with D is not the absence of verb, but the use of lower.

rise cannot be lower; rise is less.
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2018, 05:27
I'm curious about this question. Isn't less only used when the quantity cannot be counted? In this case, we are given a concrete number - 2.8. Shouldn't that mean that less cannot be used
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Re: Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that  [#permalink]

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17 May 2018, 18:13
1
abhigulia3006 wrote:
I'm curious about this question. Isn't less only used when the quantity cannot be counted? In this case, we are given a concrete number - 2.8. Shouldn't that mean that less cannot be used

Quote:
Employment costs rose 2.8 percent in the 12 months that ended in September, slightly less than they did in the year that ended in the previous quarter.

A. less than they did
B. less than it did
C. less than they were
D. lower than
E. lower than they were

Whenever "less" is used as a noun modifier, then it needs to modify a non-countable noun. So you can't say "less doughnuts", for example, because "doughnuts" are grammatically countable (one doughnut, two doughnuts, three doughnuts). You probably already know all of that.

The trouble is, that's not what's happening in this question at all. The word "less" is actually an adverb that modifies the verb "rose" here: "employment costs rose... less than they did [in the past]." There's absolute no problem with using "less" to modify a verb, and when that happens, there's no need to worry about whether the noun is countable or non-countable.

So in this particular sentence, it makes perfect sense to say "employment costs rose... less than they did..." "They" correctly refers back to "employment costs", and it would be wrong to use "it" -- so that eliminates (B).

As many others have pointed out, it also doesn't make sense to say "employment costs rose... lower..." So that eliminates (D) and (E).

Between (A) and (C), it's useful to recognize that "did" basically replaces the word "rose." So in (A), we have "employment costs rose... less than [employment costs rose] in the year that ended the previous quarter." That works! But in (C), it doesn't quite make as much sense: "employment costs rose... less than [employment costs] were in the year that ended the previous quarter." Huh? The phrase "less than employment costs were" doesn't convey the meaning clearly at all. So we're left with (A).

I hope this helps!
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