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# Every three months an index of leading economic indicators

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Joined: 30 Apr 2013
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28 Sep 2013, 00:01
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Every three months an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter is released by the U.S. Commerce Department, that provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts.

(A) Every three months an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter is released by the U.S. Commerce Department, that provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts

(B) Every three months, the U.S. Department of Commerce, by providing economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts, releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter

(C) Every three months, the U.S. Commerce Department releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, providing economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts

(D) Having released an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, every three months the U.S. Commerce Department provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts

(E) Every three months, the U.S. Commerce Department releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, provides the basis for economists' making bleak or hopeful forecasts

I was confused between A and C. Can someone explain why other options are wrong?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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28 Sep 2013, 00:18
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Every three months an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter is released by the U.S. Commerce Department, that provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts.

(A) Every three months an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter is released by the U.S. Commerce Department, that provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts
"that" always points to the nearest noun and here the nearest noun is Commerce Department. U.S. Commerce Department doesn't provide the basis for forecasts. Instead, it is the index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter that provides the basis for forecast

(B) Every three months, the U.S. Department of Commerce, by providing economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts, releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter --> Clear change in meaning

(C) Every three months, the U.S. Commerce Department releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, providing economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts --> CORRECT

(D) Having released an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, every three months the U.S. Commerce Department provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts
Again change in meaning and awkward. Commerce department doesn't provide economists with the basis for forecasts every 3 months. Rather, the department releases index of leading economic indicators every 3 months

(E) Every three months, the U.S. Commerce Department releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, provides the basis for economists' making bleak or hopeful forecasts
Here the structure of the sentence is: Department releases X, provides Y. This is incorrect. Correct structure should be : Release of X leads to Y.

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28 Sep 2013, 00:18
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rwj wrote:
I was confused between A and C. Can someone explain why other options are wrong?

(A) Every three months an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter is released by the U.S. Commerce Department, that provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts
In this sentence the antecedent for THAT is ambiguous. Is it Commerce department or Index of economic indicators? Thus incorrect

(C) Every three months, the U.S. Commerce Department releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, providing economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts
The use of present participle "PROVIDING" clearly indicates that "the action of release of an index by commerce department" provides the basis.

I hope this clears your doubts.
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28 Sep 2013, 01:03
rwj wrote:
Every three months an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter is released by the U.S. Commerce Department, that provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts.

(A) Every three months an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter is released by the U.S. Commerce Department, that provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts

(B) Every three months, the U.S. Department of Commerce, by providing economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts, releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter

(C) Every three months, the U.S. Commerce Department releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, providing economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts

(D) Having released an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, every three months the U.S. Commerce Department provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts

(E) Every three months, the U.S. Commerce Department releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, provides the basis for economists' making bleak or hopeful forecasts

I was confused between A and C. Can someone explain why other options are wrong?

Every three months an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter is released by the U.S. Commerce Department, that provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts
The problem in A is not that it is ambiguous since the verb "provides" is singular, pointing directly to the department but that "that" is preceded by a comma.
The "that" preceded by a comma is ALWAYS incorrect.
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28 Sep 2013, 01:13
Marcab wrote:
The "that" preceded by a comma is ALWAYS incorrect.

Should we consider it as a thumb rule? or are there any exceptions?

Check this question:
gmatclub.com/forum/musicians-of-the-17th-century-often-enjoyed-baroque-style-123885.html
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28 Sep 2013, 01:18
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Expert's post
rwj wrote:
Every three months an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter is released by the U.S. Commerce Department, that provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts.

(A) Every three months an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter is released by the U.S. Commerce Department, that provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts

(B) Every three months, the U.S. Department of Commerce, by providing economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts, releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter

(C) Every three months, the U.S. Commerce Department releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, providing economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts

(D) Having released an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, every three months the U.S. Commerce Department provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts

(E) Every three months, the U.S. Commerce Department releases an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter, provides the basis for economists' making bleak or hopeful forecasts

I was confused between A and C. Can someone explain why other options are wrong?

Intended Meaning :- The US commerce department releases, once in every three months, an index of leading economic indicators for the preceding quarter. This provides economists with the basis for the economic forecasts.

A) INCORRECT :- Here the relative pronoun that is misplaced, and thus the sentence implies that The US Commerce department provides the basis for economic forecasts whereas logically the release of index do so. Hence this choice is not consistent with the Intended Meaning.

B) INCORRECT :- This choice commits the same mistake as does the Choice A. Here the non-essential modifier 'By providing.............hopeful forecasts' refers to the US commerce Department and convey the same message as Choice A does.

C) CORRECT :- This correct choice converts relative clause 'that provides economic .......' in to a Verb -ing Modifier providing economists............
Verb -ing modifiers when preceded by a clause and separated by comma modifies the entire preceding clause., So this choice express the meaning that is consistent with the Intended meaning which is The release of index provides economists with the basis for the economic forecasts
[/color]
D) INCORRECT :- Incorrect for the same reason as Choice A and B. U.S. Commerce Department provides economists with the basis for bleak or hopeful forecasts

E) INCORRECT :- Comma Splice. Two predicates and actions of subject connected only with comma and with proper conjuction the U.S. Commerce Department releases ....................................., provides ....................................................

Hope that helps!
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28 Sep 2013, 01:26
TirthankarP wrote:
Marcab wrote:
The "that" preceded by a comma is ALWAYS incorrect.

Should we consider it as a thumb rule? or are there any exceptions?

Check this question:
gmatclub.com/forum/musicians-of-the-17th-century-often-enjoyed-baroque-style-123885.html

Make it thumb rule for official questions.
The question in the link that you shared has some disgusting choices, so no answer but the one in which "that" is preceded by comma is the best.
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28 Sep 2013, 02:12
Thank you all for the help. I'm clear now

And thanks Marcab, will remember your tip.
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25 Aug 2015, 15:01
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Re: Every three months an index of leading economic indicators   [#permalink] 25 Aug 2015, 15:01
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