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Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of

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Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2012, 03:19
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Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 01:33
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PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

A classic example of the importance of trying to brainstorm and accurately predict the assumption before you look through the answer choices!

We're trying to conclude that the destruction in question was caused by a particular earthquake that occurred in A.D. 365. But the only premise is that the destruction was caused by some earthquake. What's the gap here? We don't have any evidence that the earthquake responsible for the damage was the one that happened in A.D. 365!

We need to assume that this particular earthquake (and not some other) was indeed the culprit. Since this is a Strengthen question, the correct answer should somehow affirm that assumption.

(A) If anything, this weakens because these vessels were from the time period "preceding and following A.D. 365. Eliminate.
(B) Here we have artifacts before the date in question, but not after the date in question. This would definitely support the hypothesis that the earthquake occurred in A.D. 365. Leave in for now.
(C) We've already established that there was an earthquake near Cyprus in A.D. 365 ("known to have occurred near [Cyprus] in A.D. 365"). The question of whether this was the particular earthquake that destroyed Kourion still remains1. Eliminate.
(D) Same problem as (A) – we have artifacts on either side of the date in question (A.D. 365). Eliminate.
(E) Another weakening statement. If stone inscriptions dated to a time after 365 A.D. were found in Kourion, that actually suggests the city was destroyed at a later data. Eliminate.

So, we're down to the correct answer (B). Notice that without understanding what we really want the correct answer to do – i.e., provide evidence of civilization of before A.D. 365 but not after - we could very easily be led astray here by answer choices. Even when you can't successfully predict exactly the correct answer assumptions-related questions, you should still take the time to give it your best shot!

Cheers,
Mark
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 10:21
hello puneeth ,looks like you are working really hard on those critical reasoning questions everyday

i should thank you for your questions ,,
i have never missed a question posted by you..
when i felt like i cannot work on these problems your posts boosted confidence in me
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just one more month for exam...

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2013, 10:32
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PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

Quote:
Hi Mike, I am not able to understand the difference between option B & C. As per "MarkSullivan" the earthquake must had happend in A.D. 365 but option B can also mean that earthquake happened in 364 or any year prior to A.D. 365. In option C the word "Near" is the cause of concern. Can you kindly explain where am i wrong. Waiting for your valuable inputs. Regards, Fame

MarkSullivan indeed gave a very good explanation for this post.
Fame, one BIG GMAT CR idea ---- the evidence given in the prompt is non-negotiably true. We just have to accept it as fact. In this particular prompt, one such fact is "a major earthquake [was] known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365." For the purpose of analyzing this question, that is gospel truth, beyond all debate.

Because the evidence is non-negotiably true, any answer choice that either re-affirms the evidence or directly contradicts the evidence is not correct.
Option (C) directly restates the fact given in the prompt --- the only thing added is that apparently this earthquake is mentioned in modern histories of Cyprus. Both the prompt and (C) use the word "near" in precisely the same way --- the epicenter was not on the island, but near the island. Answer (C) restates the evidence of the prompt ---> automatically wrong.

By contrast, (B) introduces a completely new line of thinking, which dovetails nicely with the rest of the argument. I believe you didn't read careful what MarkSullivan said. He said: "Here we have artifacts before the date in question, but not after the date in question. This would definitely support the hypothesis that the earthquake occurred in A.D. 365." In other words, the town of Kourion was making coins in 362, in 362, in 364 --- perfectly fine coin manufacturing in all those years. Then the earthquake strikes in 365, so no more coins. Choice (B) clearly says: "coins minted before that year were found in abundance", which implies --- plenty of coins from 362 & 363 & 364. In other words, plenty of coins right up until the earthquake.
More to the point, you are calling everything into question. That's sloppy thinking. You are not being precise in the way you approach CR. The evidence is absolutely unquestionable. One piece of evidence is: the earthquake was known to occur in 365. That's beyond doubt. There is absolutely no ambiguity about the date of the earthquake, so any attention to the date of the earthquake is entirely besides the point.
The conclusion of the argument is NOT that an earthquake occurred in 365. The existence of that earthquake at that date is simply presented as fact, beyond debate. The conclusion is that the town of Kourion was suddenly destroyed in that earthquake. That's where your attention should be, not on the date of the earthquake.

GMAT CR is NOT about questioning everything. Distractor answers, like (C) here, are designed to get you puzzling about things that are actually beyond debate. You have to get into the habit of recognizing that all the evidence given is true and absolutely beyond question. Otherwise, the distractor answers will continue to trap you.

Mike
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2014, 09:21
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2014, 10:54
I get why answer B is correct, but I still can't shake off why answer C isn't correct.

The conclusion "Archeologists have hypothesized the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.".

When I looked at it, I was thinking of finding answers that support that in fact there was a major earthquake near the island (Ans C) and not something else that destroyed Kourion. Ans B supports the fact that the city doesn't exist after A.D. 365 but doesn't explain how the city was destroyed.

I have a hard time figuring what's really at play here and what the real answer should be.

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2014, 20:51
beef001 wrote:
I get why answer B is correct, but I still can't shake off why answer C isn't correct.

The conclusion "Archeologists have hypothesized the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.".

When I looked at it, I was thinking of finding answers that support that in fact there was a major earthquake near the island (Ans C) and not something else that destroyed Kourion. Ans B supports the fact that the city doesn't exist after A.D. 365 but doesn't explain how the city was destroyed.

I have a hard time figuring what's really at play here and what the real answer should be.

Dear beef001,
I'm happy to respond.

My friend, notice that Mark Sullivan of MGMAT gave a good detailed explanation on this page, and then I did as well. Did you read through these explanations? We both addressed this very point about which you are asking? Is there something in our explanations that you don't understand? If you read our responses and are still left with doubts, please tell us which part of what we said doesn't resonate with you or convince you.

Two important skills for being an excellent student:
1) take maximum advantage of all the resources you have at your disposal
2) when you have the opportunity to ask questions, ask excellent questions. See:

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 02:40
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2017, 22:53
mikemcgarry wrote:
PUNEETSCHDV wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

Quote:
Hi Mike, I am not able to understand the difference between option B & C. As per "MarkSullivan" the earthquake must had happend in A.D. 365 but option B can also mean that earthquake happened in 364 or any year prior to A.D. 365. In option C the word "Near" is the cause of concern. Can you kindly explain where am i wrong. Waiting for your valuable inputs. Regards, Fame

MarkSullivan indeed gave a very good explanation for this post.
Fame, one BIG GMAT CR idea ---- the evidence given in the prompt is non-negotiably true. We just have to accept it as fact. In this particular prompt, one such fact is "a major earthquake [was] known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365." For the purpose of analyzing this question, that is gospel truth, beyond all debate.

Because the evidence is non-negotiably true, any answer choice that either re-affirms the evidence or directly contradicts the evidence is not correct.
Option (C) directly restates the fact given in the prompt --- the only thing added is that apparently this earthquake is mentioned in modern histories of Cyprus. Both the prompt and (C) use the word "near" in precisely the same way --- the epicenter was not on the island, but near the island. Answer (C) restates the evidence of the prompt ---> automatically wrong.

By contrast, (B) introduces a completely new line of thinking, which dovetails nicely with the rest of the argument. I believe you didn't read careful what MarkSullivan said. He said: "Here we have artifacts before the date in question, but not after the date in question. This would definitely support the hypothesis that the earthquake occurred in A.D. 365." In other words, the town of Kourion was making coins in 362, in 362, in 364 --- perfectly fine coin manufacturing in all those years. Then the earthquake strikes in 365, so no more coins. Choice (B) clearly says: "coins minted before that year were found in abundance", which implies --- plenty of coins from 362 & 363 & 364. In other words, plenty of coins right up until the earthquake.

Mike

In MUST BE TRUE questions... would C make a lot of sense??

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2017, 23:49
deependra1234 wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

In MUST BE TRUE questions... would C make a lot of sense??

Dear deependra1234,

I'm happy to respond.

Even if this were a "must be true" question, I don't think (C) would work. Right now, from the prompt, we know for a fact that the major earthquake occurred in A.D. 365. When did this fact become evident to researchers? Was this known for hundreds of years or was it discovered, say, by revolutionary discoveries just last year? We don't know how long this fact has been established.

Now, these modern histories of Cyprus--probably published, say, in the last 50 years. Were these published long after the fact of this earthquake was known, or before? Again, we don't know. There's a possibility because of timing it might not have been known to the authors of the books.

Suppose the earthquake as fact has been well-established for a while and suppose every author of a book about the modern history of Cyprus clearly knew about the earthquake--even then, does it mean that these authors would mention it? Authors only mention facts that fit their agenda. We know this earthquake happened, but we don't know anything about whatever political or economic ramifications it had. Was the earthquake in the middle of a populated area, or was it in the wilderness somewhere, such that no one at the time was aware? We don't know. Even if the earthquake simply had the effect, say, of killing a bunch of poor peasants, it is possible that it had zero effect on the economic situation as a whole and zero effect on political succession of power, and therefore was not worthy of mention in the history books. Even if it had some significant economic or political effect, an author with a different agenda might not want to mention it.

There are at least a few reasons that this fact would not fit the "must be true" criterion, given what we know. The "must be true" questions is in many respects identical to the inference questions. I will recommend this blog:
GMAT Critical Reasoning: Find the Conclusion or Inference

Does this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2017, 02:31
mikemcgarry wrote:
deependra1234 wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devastated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists’ hypothesis?
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessels that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

In MUST BE TRUE questions... would C make a lot of sense??

Dear deependra1234,

I'm happy to respond.

Even if this were a "must be true" question, I don't think (C) would work. Right now, from the prompt, we know for a fact that the major earthquake occurred in A.D. 365. When did this fact become evident to researchers? Was this known for hundreds of years or was it discovered, say, by revolutionary discoveries just last year? We don't know how long this fact has been established.

Now, these modern histories of Cyprus--probably published, say, in the last 50 years. Were these published long after the fact of this earthquake was known, or before? Again, we don't know. There's a possibility because of timing it might not have been known to the authors of the books.

Suppose the earthquake as fact has been well-established for a while and suppose every author of a book about the modern history of Cyprus clearly knew about the earthquake--even then, does it mean that these authors would mention it? Authors only mention facts that fit their agenda. We know this earthquake happened, but we don't know anything about whatever political or economic ramifications it had. Was the earthquake in the middle of a populated area, or was it in the wilderness somewhere, such that no one at the time was aware? We don't know. Even if the earthquake simply had the effect, say, of killing a bunch of poor peasants, it is possible that it had zero effect on the economic situation as a whole and zero effect on political succession of power, and therefore was not worthy of mention in the history books. Even if it had some significant economic or political effect, an author with a different agenda might not want to mention it.

There are at least a few reasons that this fact would not fit the "must be true" criterion, given what we know. The "must be true" questions is in many respects identical to the inference questions. I will recommend this blog:
GMAT Critical Reasoning: Find the Conclusion or Inference

Does this make sense?
Mike

Thanks a ton Mike ..works for me

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 243

Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of   [#permalink] 25 Feb 2017, 02:31
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