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# Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2012, 07:21
I ruled out c because it states historians' hypothesis that could be either right or wrong. facts rather than Opinions/hypothesis/beliefs strengthen an argument.

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2012, 09:05
This question is mentioned in the live section of e gmat. we want e gmat expert do this question for us, using prethinking assumption first . pls, detail the process of prethink an assumption for this question. This step is key to success on CR. Thank you.

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Re: critical reasoning problem: earthquakes [#permalink]

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20 May 2013, 11:47
mailnavin1 wrote:
scorpio7 wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devestated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occured near the island in A.D. 365.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists' hypothesis?

(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion. - The word following implies quake can also have happened in 366 or 367
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were foundin Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365. - Nearby earthquake has no significance - Earthquake in India did not cause one in pakistan
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion. - same as A
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.- weakens the argument

Obviously this is an official question. However, read the stem: "Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occured near the island in A.D. 365"

Now read C: Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365

"B" doesnt prove there was an earthquake, although its plausible. It depends on which part of the conclusion you are attacking. Perhaps Kourion decided not to use coins, and switched to trading teeth as currency? "B" does not have to mean that there were earthquakes nor does it mean that the city was destroyed. I can poke a lot more holes into "B" than I can into "C".
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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23 May 2013, 19:17
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(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.---Irrelevant
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were foundin Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance----shows that the coins something happened in AD 365 that stopped the normal coin production
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365.--------Modern history is out of scope
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.----------Irrelevant
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion. ---------Doesn't make the argument strong

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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24 May 2013, 02:15
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devestated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occured near the island in A.D. 365.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists' hypothesis?

(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were foundin Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

Nothing but B,
C: Talks abot earthquake near the island and also, the earthquake might not destroy the islands.
D: between 300 and 400 AD might include period after 365 AD also.

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2013, 20:07
I don't buy the reasoning for 'C'. Just because the Option 'C' doesn't mention the words "earthquake destroyed" we cannot or rather we should not rule out the option. In fact if you guys put the same kind of reasoning in 'B' it clearly doesnt mention that the coins were stopped minting because of the devastation that the earthquake caused, it simply says that coins minted after AD 365 were not found which can also imply that kourions just stopped minting or they might have substituted coins with something else.

All I am saying is that Just because 'C' doesnt say the words "earthquake destroyed" we cannot/should not rule out C. If someone can really reason out with proper logic for both 'B' and 'C' that would be helpful.

I am also keen to know more about the reasoning that 'C' only repeats the conclusion and gives nothing more. This fact is true, 'C' does really says nothing more that just repeat the conclusion, but the main question is, in CR's of 'S' 'W' types where such type of options will/might be present, is it OK to eliminate it just because it restates the conclusion. Has any book/rule given something about it.

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2013, 13:14
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
let me try to unhitch the doubt if that helps anyone

A. .....dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion--> how do we know if AD 365 earthquake was the end of the civilization
B. Something happened after which they stopped trading and minting coins? Probably no1 was alive to trade? Probably some major destruction. Looks great let's explore the other options.
C. Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365---> Near the island(Near means how near? near enought to affect the civilization? we dont know or was that earthquake intense enough to wipe off the civilaztion? Again we dont know. For multiple reasons C goes off).
D. Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 --> So? how does it helps us in the hypothesis?
E. Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion --> OMG!! then definitely the civilization was alive, this one weakens the assumtions.
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Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2014, 16:37
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devestated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occured near the island in A.D. 365.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists' hypothesis?

(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were foundin Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

i know the answer is B, but can any one explain to me why C is not correct ?

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2014, 10:15
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
let me try to unhitch the doubt if that helps anyone
C. Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365---> Near the island(Near means how near? near enought to affect the civilization? we dont know or was that earthquake intense enough to wipe off the civilaztion? Again we dont know. For multiple reasons C goes off).

Why it is okay to say "Archeologists have hypothesised that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occurred NEAR the island in A.D. 365" They say already that THIS nearby earthquake made the destructions. So we DO know that the city was affected by the earthquake.

What I fail to comprehend - like some have written here already, where there's any clue that the whole city/town was destroyed and ceased its life? Yes, it was devastated… yes, some buildings were in ruins…

What if the ore mines were collapsed after the earthquake, so no more gold/silver/copper could be mined to mint the coins? Or the skill of minting the coins was lost due to earthquake?
I think this question is too ambiguous. I'd like to see GMAC answering our questions here.

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2014, 04:10
I think providing evidence of earthquake is not sufficient to prove that destruction was caused by that particular earthquake so C should be incorrect

A. the word 'following' AD 365 makes this choice circumspect. we need evidence of destruction(meaning no activity to indicate civilization).

C. as stated above it is incorrect
D and E indicate activity would've been possible after AD 365
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2014, 20:50
Absence of coins after AD 345 means one of two things:

1) For whatever reason coin production stopped

2) For whatever reason people who used coins in that area stopped using coins in that area.

If you assume option 2) - which is what is used to justify answer choice C - you are only accepting that something happened which caused the people to move/die. It could very well have been something other than an earthquake. What if they just migrated for religious reasons? What if they moved out because of some disease? Floods? Who knows. We can't assume its an earthquake based on absence of use of coins.

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2015, 04:00
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2016, 05:02
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devestated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occured near the island in A.D. 365.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists' hypothesis?

(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were foundin Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

In this question, which portion in the question stem suggest that "occurrence of earthquake is not disputed"?
Sentence 1 says "typical of towns devastated by earthquake". This can imply that something similar to earthquake devastated the towns.

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2016, 20:42
Pre-thinking: (1) There was no earthquake other than the one in A.D. 365 in this area. or (2) evidence proves that the earthquake affected Kourion occurred in A.D. 365. ex: sth in Kourion that only can be found before A.D. 365

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2016, 13:51
B. Pretty clear. If the researchers were able to pinpoint a certain date, there has to be strong evidence. Only B explains the researchers' confidence.

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2017, 15:12
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
the choice supports the argument partially but not completely as the glasses found in the busrial sites does not mean that the city was detroyed by the earthquakel.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were foundin Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance
this choice proves that the city was destroyed as no coins minted after AD365 were found on the site proving that the city was indeed destroyed by the earthquake
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365.
the point supports the answer but choice b is more stronger as this point does not point that the city was destroyed.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
th etimeline given in the choice is large and does not accuratly support the argument.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.
Does not prove any earthquake or any devastation of a city

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Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2017, 15:28
scorpio7 wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devestated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occured near the island in A.D. 365.

Which of the following,[i] if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists' hypothesis?[/i]

(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

Situation:

After excavation of the city, there have been got a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings, which are devastated by the earthquake. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction
was due to a major (NOT minor) earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
There are two situations I've to consider here:
1. Before A.D. 365 and
2. After A.D. 365

And also I must proof two things here simultaneously:
Part 1:

The destruction was due to an earthquake, which was major (our job is NOT to prove that the destruction was ONLY due to an earthquake because in first sentence of the argument it is already said that the destruction was due to an earthquake but we have to prove that the earthquake was a MAJOR earthquake rather than only earthquake
Part 2:
The destruction was happened in A.D. 365.
According to GMAC, option B is the 100% correct answer.

Part 1:
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
The fragment 1: No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion,
The fragment 2: but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
That means: (B) The coins, which minted after A.D. 365, were NOT found in Kourion, but the coins, which minted before that year (exactly in A.D. 364), were found in abundance.
What does the bold part infer?
The bold part infers that if someone gets the coin, which was made after 365 (i.e., 366,367,368 to till date), will proof that the destruction was NOT happen in A.D.365. If you got any coin in which there is written A.D. 366 on the site of the coin, it'll definitely proof that the destruction was happened in any day of A.D. 366 (NOT 365 as it is considered after 365 by The fragment 1), if you got any coin in which there is written 2015 on the site of the coin, it must proof that the destruction was happen in any day of 2015 (NOT 2014 or before as it is considered by me The coins, which minted after 2014, were...) to till date today but not tomorrow !
So, the fragment 1 ensures that the city had been destroyed by earthquake as ONLY earthquake is discussed in the argument.

Again, problem in option B:
The option B is totally unable to proof that the earthquake was major (NOT minor!). Suppose, someone has got some coins after earthquake, the guy may have these coins for a MINOR earthquake, isn't it?
The argument did not give any indication that if the earthquake is in 8 Richter scale then the earthquake will be major earthquake. And there also should have at least one indication in answer option, which must imply that the earthquake was, of course, major earthquake. But option B hasn't indicated that sort of things.

Analogy: [......statement.....].
[Conclusion]Finally, scientists have hypothesized that the reward was given by the white American. If answer option proves that it is ONLY by 'American' or it is by 'black American', it'll definitely be wrong! The correct answer option must prove that it is ONLY by "White American".

Here, I just want to say that ''adjective'' plays a vital role in this regard.

Part 2:
(B) The coins, which minted after A.D. 365, were NOT found in Kourion, but the coins, which minted before that year (this doesn't mean EXACTLY in A.D. 364, it may be FIRST month of A.D. 364 and also LAST month of A.D. 364), were found in abundance.

Analogy: Suppose, the coins were made on January, 2015 (but ONLY year 2015 will be written NOT January 1st , 10th, 31st , 2015 will be written fully/completely on the site of the coin!) and the earthquake occurred on May 1st , 2015. Suppose, GMAC has got some coins on this earthquake today (February 4, 2017). So, the GMAC MUST NOT say that the earthquake was happened in 2018 (The year 2018 has not come yet!). So, the correct answer option B can???t prove that the destruction was happened in A.D. 365; it, basically, will happen in any day of A.D. 364.

So, if my logic is correct, then GMAC's right option is wrong! But, if my logic doesn't fit with this situation and/or doesn't make any sense, then I'm really sorry for creating excitement to all the students and expert of GMAT Club!
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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2017, 05:08
iMyself wrote:
scorpio7 wrote:
Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of Cyprus revealed a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings typical of towns devestated by earthquakes. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction was due to a major earthquake known to have occured near the island in A.D. 365.

Which of the following,[i] if true, most strongly supports the archaeologists' hypothesis?[/i]

(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance
(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyprus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

Situation:

After excavation of the city, there have been got a pattern of debris and collapsed buildings, which are devastated by the earthquake. Archaeologists have hypothesized that the destruction
was due to a major (NOT minor) earthquake known to have occurred near the island in A.D. 365.
There are two situations I've to consider here:
1. Before A.D. 365 and
2. After A.D. 365

And also I must proof two things here simultaneously:
Part 1:

The destruction was due to an earthquake, which was major (our job is NOT to prove that the destruction was ONLY due to an earthquake because in first sentence of the argument it is already said that the destruction was due to an earthquake but we have to prove that the earthquake was a MAJOR earthquake rather than only earthquake
Part 2:
The destruction was happened in A.D. 365.
According to GMAC, option B is the 100% correct answer.

Part 1:
(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
The fragment 1: No coins minted after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion,
The fragment 2: but coins minted before that year were found in abundance.
That means: (B) The coins, which minted after A.D. 365, were NOT found in Kourion, but the coins, which minted before that year (exactly in A.D. 364), were found in abundance.
What does the bold part infer?
The bold part infers that if someone gets the coin, which was made after 365 (i.e., 366,367,368 to till date), will proof that the destruction was NOT happen in A.D.365. If you got any coin in which there is written A.D. 366 on the site of the coin, it'll definitely proof that the destruction was happened in any day of A.D. 366 (NOT 365 as it is considered after 365 by The fragment 1), if you got any coin in which there is written 2015 on the site of the coin, it must proof that the destruction was happen in any day of 2015 (NOT 2014 or before as it is considered by me The coins, which minted after 2014, were...) to till date today but not tomorrow !
So, the fragment 1 ensures that the city had been destroyed by earthquake as ONLY earthquake is discussed in the argument.

Again, problem in option B:
The option B is totally unable to proof that the earthquake was major (NOT minor!). Suppose, someone has got some coins after earthquake, the guy may have these coins for a MINOR earthquake, isn't it?
The argument did not give any indication that if the earthquake is in 8 Richter scale then the earthquake will be major earthquake. And there also should have at least one indication in answer option, which must imply that the earthquake was, of course, major earthquake. But option B hasn't indicated that sort of things.

Analogy: [......statement.....].
[Conclusion]Finally, scientists have hypothesized that the reward was given by the white American. If answer option proves that it is ONLY by 'American' or it is by 'black American', it'll definitely be wrong! The correct answer option must prove that it is ONLY by "White American".

Here, I just want to say that ''adjective'' plays a vital role in this regard.

Part 2:
(B) The coins, which minted after A.D. 365, were NOT found in Kourion, but the coins, which minted before that year (this doesn't mean EXACTLY in A.D. 364, it may be FIRST month of A.D. 364 and also LAST month of A.D. 364), were found in abundance.

Analogy: Suppose, the coins were made on January, 2015 (but ONLY year 2015 will be written NOT January 1st , 10th, 31st , 2015 will be written fully/completely on the site of the coin!) and the earthquake occurred on May 1st , 2015. Suppose, GMAC has got some coins on this earthquake today (February 4, 2017). So, the GMAC MUST NOT say that the earthquake was happened in 2018 (The year 2018 has not come yet!). So, the correct answer option B can???t prove that the destruction was happened in A.D. 365; it, basically, will happen in any day of A.D. 364.

So, if my logic is correct, then GMAC's right option is wrong! But, if my logic doesn't fit with this situation and/or doesn't make any sense, then I'm really sorry for creating excitement to all the students and expert of GMAT Club!

It appears that you are presuming that the question is about when the earthquake happened - it is not. It is already established that the earthquake happened in A.D.365. But whether the city was destroyed by that earthquake or by some other reason is the topic of the argument.

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Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2017, 09:05
(A) Bronze ceremonial drinking vessals that are often found in graves dating from years preceding and following A.D. 365 were also found in several graves near Kourion.
the ceremonail drinking vessals are used when there is a ceremony while the earthquake destroyed the town completely ther are little chances of the ceremony to have occured.

(B) No coins minted after A.D. 365 were foundin Kourion, but coins minted before that year were found in abundance
This answer choice makes clear that the destruction occured in 365 since no coins minted after the year were found and those minted before that year were found.

(C) Most modern histories of Cyprus mention that an earthquake occured near the island in A.D. 365.
this choice also strengthens the argument but his choice is inferior to choice b as choice b presents clear evidence.

(D) Several small statues carved in styles current in Cyprus in the century between A.D. 300 and 400 were found in Kourion.
the 300-400 is a 100 year gap and does not points out the exact year of the earthquake and therfore not a good answer

(E) Stone inscriptions in a form of the Greek alphabet that was definitely used in Cyrpus after A.D. 365 were found in Kourion.

Kudos [?]: 85 [0], given: 18

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Kudos [?]: 232 [0], given: 179

Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2017, 19:29
Hi Bunuel,
Hope you are well. It seems that this question is seen in different places. So, I request you to merge this topics so that member of gmatclub easily find the topics in a particular place. Thank you...

Here is the link of this question in different places.
https://gmatclub.com/forum/excavation-o ... fl=similar
https://gmatclub.com/forum/excavation-o ... fl=similar
https://gmatclub.com/forum/excavation-o ... fl=similar
https://gmatclub.com/forum/excavation-o ... 79679.html
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“The heights by great men reached and kept were not attained in sudden flight but, they while their companions slept, they were toiling upwards in the night.”

Kudos [?]: 232 [0], given: 179

Re: Excavation of the ancient city of Kourion on the island of   [#permalink] 10 Feb 2017, 19:29

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