Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack

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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2008, 14:53
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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year. (A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of (B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business (C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of (D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business (E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business I got this wrong.... can you please post answers with explanations? [Reveal] Spoiler: OA If you have any questions you can ask an expert New! Intern Joined: 18 Oct 2005 Posts: 16 Location: NEW JERSEY Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 0 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 01 Jul 2008, 16:07 I go for B, which is concise and uses the modifiers properly. Manager Joined: 20 Mar 2008 Posts: 159 Location: USA Followers: 2 Kudos [?]: 45 [0], given: 0 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 03 Jul 2008, 12:07 OA is B Director Joined: 24 Aug 2007 Posts: 954 WE 1: 3.5 yrs IT WE 2: 2.5 yrs Retail chain Followers: 76 Kudos [?]: 1277 [2] , given: 40 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 16 Apr 2010, 22:34 2 This post received KUDOS 2 This post was BOOKMARKED IMO B. Clues: 1. A is wrong as "which already are a cost to business of" is incorrect usage. 2. the effects of drug and alcohol abuse [plural] - COST is required. So, C and E out. 3. D is wrong because initial non-underlined part "the use....is growing" which indicates it requires an adverb to indicate the emphasis and also u can see ", and already costing business" part in the end which add another clause rather than a modified form. _________________ Want to improve your CR: http://gmatclub.com/forum/cr-methods-an-approach-to-find-the-best-answers-93146.html Tricky Quant problems: http://gmatclub.com/forum/50-tricky-questions-92834.html Important Grammer Fundamentals: http://gmatclub.com/forum/key-fundamentals-of-grammer-our-crucial-learnings-on-sc-93659.html Manager Joined: 25 Dec 2009 Posts: 66 Followers: 4 Kudos [?]: 36 [0], given: 2 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 07 Jun 2010, 20:58 i do not quite agree with reason for DE. DE is wrong because the there is a separate clause after ‘and’ in which ‘and’ is preceded by a comma. hence, the second clause must have a subject. Besides ‘significantly’ is required over here because an adverb pattern is predered here. E also has S-V problem Director Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing. Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business Joined: 26 Nov 2009 Posts: 997 Location: Singapore Followers: 22 Kudos [?]: 762 [0], given: 36 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 07 Jun 2010, 21:53 Thanks in B what is the antecedent of "which" ? Is this an exception from the rule we follow for which? (B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business ykaiim wrote: IMO B. Clues: 1. A is wrong as "which already are a cost to business of" is incorrect usage. 2. the effects of drug and alcohol abuse [plural] - COST is required. So, C and E out. 3. D is wrong because initial non-underlined part "the use....is growing" which indicates it requires an adverb to indicate the emphasis and also u can see ", and already costing business" part in the end which add another clause rather than a modified form. _________________ Please press kudos if you like my post. Director Joined: 24 Aug 2007 Posts: 954 WE 1: 3.5 yrs IT WE 2: 2.5 yrs Retail chain Followers: 76 Kudos [?]: 1277 [0], given: 40 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 07 Jun 2010, 23:09 No, it's not an exception. WHICH refers to THE EFFECTS. nusmavrik wrote: Thanks in B what is the antecedent of "which" ? Is this an exception from the rule we follow for which? (B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business ykaiim wrote: IMO B. Clues: 1. A is wrong as "which already are a cost to business of" is incorrect usage. 2. the effects of drug and alcohol abuse [plural] - COST is required. So, C and E out. 3. D is wrong because initial non-underlined part "the use....is growing" which indicates it requires an adverb to indicate the emphasis and also u can see ", and already costing business" part in the end which add another clause rather than a modified form. _________________ Want to improve your CR: http://gmatclub.com/forum/cr-methods-an-approach-to-find-the-best-answers-93146.html Tricky Quant problems: http://gmatclub.com/forum/50-tricky-questions-92834.html Important Grammer Fundamentals: http://gmatclub.com/forum/key-fundamentals-of-grammer-our-crucial-learnings-on-sc-93659.html Director Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing. Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business Joined: 26 Nov 2009 Posts: 997 Location: Singapore Followers: 22 Kudos [?]: 762 [0], given: 36 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 07 Jun 2010, 23:20 which refers to immediate noun before the comma. effects is way too far ykaiim wrote: No, it's not an exception. WHICH refers to THE EFFECTS. nusmavrik wrote: Thanks in B what is the antecedent of "which" ? Is this an exception from the rule we follow for which? (B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business ykaiim wrote: IMO B. Clues: 1. A is wrong as "which already are a cost to business of" is incorrect usage. 2. the effects of drug and alcohol abuse [plural] - COST is required. So, C and E out. 3. D is wrong because initial non-underlined part "the use....is growing" which indicates it requires an adverb to indicate the emphasis and also u can see ", and already costing business" part in the end which add another clause rather than a modified form. _________________ Please press kudos if you like my post. Manager Joined: 25 Dec 2009 Posts: 66 Followers: 4 Kudos [?]: 36 [0], given: 2 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 07 Jun 2010, 23:37 so what if it is far? when you have "X of Y" before a modifier ‘which’, the modifier could potentially refer either to "Y" by itself or to the whole unit "X of Y". It's up to context to determine which Manager Joined: 25 Dec 2009 Posts: 66 Followers: 4 Kudos [?]: 36 [3] , given: 2 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Jun 2010, 00:08 3 This post received KUDOS nusmavrik wrote: I don't get it. ok i will try. 'which' does refer to a noun immideately preceding it is the genreal rule. but when we use 'of' we are attributing a misssion critical modifier to the subject. correct: an ice sheet covers 80% of the surface area of greenland, which is an area roughly the size of alaska. here the 'of clause' is essential to define the 80%. it is as if u r attributing a quality to the subject. something similar to using a possesive case. some thing like 'the strength of hercules' and 'hercule's strength'. both can be referred to by using 'which'. if u do observe, in many questions you can not use posseisive case and the 'of' clause together because it cause redudancy. micheal's musuc is as famous as rehman's. correct micheal's music is as famous as that of rehman. correct micheal's music is as famous as that of reham's. incorrect Director Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing. Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business Joined: 26 Nov 2009 Posts: 997 Location: Singapore Followers: 22 Kudos [?]: 762 [0], given: 36 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Jun 2010, 00:30 Thanks. What you are saying is use "of" is like possessive noun Why don't u use that to avoid all this confusion. Why which is used to refer that far in the sentence? roshanaslam wrote: nusmavrik wrote: I don't get it. ok i will try. 'which' does refer to a noun immideately preceding it is the genreal rule. but when we use 'of' we are attributing a misssion critical modifier to the subject. correct: an ice sheet covers 80% of the surface area of greenland, which is an area roughly the size of alaska. here the 'of clause' is essential to define the 80%. it is as if u r attributing a quality to the subject. something similar to using a possesive case. some thing like 'the strength of hercules' and 'hercule's strength'. both can be referred to by using 'which'. if u do observe, in many questions you can not use posseisive case and the 'of' clause together because it cause redudancy. micheal's musuc is as famous as rehman's. correct micheal's music is as famous as that of rehman. correct micheal's music is as famous as that of reham's. incorrect _________________ Please press kudos if you like my post. Manager Joined: 25 Dec 2009 Posts: 66 Followers: 4 Kudos [?]: 36 [1] , given: 2 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Jun 2010, 00:47 1 This post received KUDOS while 'which' can be used to refer to the subject of the if clause, 'that' can not be used to do so. X of y, which..... ( this would refer to X) X of y that......... ( this would refer to Y) ( in this case u will end up modifying 'drug and alcohol abuse' instead of 'effects' and also note that in the correct choice, 'which' clause gives non essential information about 'effects'. Director Status: Impossible is not a fact. It's an opinion. It's a dare. Impossible is nothing. Affiliations: University of Chicago Booth School of Business Joined: 26 Nov 2009 Posts: 997 Location: Singapore Followers: 22 Kudos [?]: 762 [0], given: 36 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Jun 2010, 01:51 Pls look at the following examples. 1. This is one of the cars that run on hydrogen that refers to cars 2. Cleveland is one of a large number of communities on the Great Lakes that are looking to improve the quality of urban life that refers to communities NOT to Great Lakes Quote: X of y that......... ( this would refer to Y) ( in this case u will end up modifying 'drug and alcohol abuse' instead of 'effects' X of y that......... So that can refer either to X or to Y. roshanaslam wrote: while 'which' can be used to refer to the subject of the if clause, 'that' can not be used to do so. X of y, which..... ( this would refer to X) X of y that......... ( this would refer to Y) ( in this case u will end up modifying 'drug and alcohol abuse' instead of 'effects' and also note that in the correct choice, 'which' clause gives non essential information about 'effects'. _________________ Please press kudos if you like my post. Manager Joined: 25 Dec 2009 Posts: 66 Followers: 4 Kudos [?]: 36 [0], given: 2 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Jun 2010, 04:11 sentence 2 is x on y and not x of y. when we use 'of' we are talking about a attribute. the 'on' clause in sentence 2 worked as an mission critical modifier. besides these rules, infact most of the style based rules in gmat can be broken. what we are talking about is a rule that works 95% of the time. decide using situation in hand. there are examples in which the 'which' in X of Y. which.... refers to y. please see the context. the main rule with 'which' is that it can not refer to a clause. it must refer to a noun/noun phrase. so 'noun phrase' part is were the catch lies. if 'gmat' has to confuse u with 'which', it will muddy the other options really bad. what u must remember is that that ambigious pronoun rule is a style rule. if other options break the grammatical rule or change the meaning, then u can definitely go for a choice with the ambigious pronoun but doesnt break the above 2 rules(grammar and meaning) GMAT Club Legend Joined: 01 Oct 2013 Posts: 10619 Followers: 941 Kudos [?]: 207 [0], given: 0 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 20 Mar 2014, 13:01 Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email. GMAT Club Legend Joined: 01 Oct 2013 Posts: 10619 Followers: 941 Kudos [?]: 207 [0], given: 0 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 09 Aug 2015, 13:16 Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email. GMAT Club Legend Joined: 01 Oct 2013 Posts: 10619 Followers: 941 Kudos [?]: 207 [0], given: 0 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 07 Oct 2016, 06:49 Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email. Intern Joined: 17 May 2016 Posts: 26 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 31 Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink] ### Show Tags 31 Jan 2017, 03:41 Hi, Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than$100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business

(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of

(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business

(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

In this sentence I do not understand why (E) is necessary wrong : In my opinion it should mean the following :

Executive say that the use of crack is growing AND already costs ...

"significantly [...] abuse" is just a modifier of "workers" and it is set into commas since is not essential.

Could you please explain what is wrong in this approach ?

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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2017, 04:40
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nickimonckom wrote:
Hi,

Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than \$100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business

(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of

(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business

(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

In this sentence I do not understand why (E) is necessary wrong : In my opinion it should mean the following :

Executive say that the use of crack is growing AND already costs ...

"significantly [...] abuse" is just a modifier of "workers" and it is set into commas since is not essential.

Could you please explain what is wrong in this approach ?

Comma + present participle modifier does not refer to the noun it touches, but the entire previous clause or the subject of the previous clause.

Here, the present participle modifier " significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse" refers to the entire clause "the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers" ( the modifier indicates the effect of growing use of crack and cocaine).

In E, the modifier "significant...." is an adjective modifier and hence should ideally touch the noun it refers - this modifier wrongly refers to "workers". Hence E is wrong.
Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack   [#permalink] 31 Jan 2017, 04:40
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