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# Expert: What criteria distinguish addictive

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Manager
Joined: 30 Apr 2016
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08 Apr 2017, 07:44
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Expert: What criteria distinguish addictive substances from nonaddictive ones? Some have suggested that any substance that at least some habitual users can cease to use is nonaddictive. However, if this is taken to be the sole criterion of non addictiveness, some substances that most medical experts classify as prime examples of addictive substances would be properly deemed nonaddictive. Any adequate set of criteria for determining a substance’s addictiveness must embody the view, held by these medical experts, that a substance is addictive only if withdrawal from its habitual use causes most users extreme psychological and physiological difficulty. Which one of the following can be properly inferred from the expert’s statements?

(A) If a person experiences extreme psychological and physiological difficulty in ceasing to use a substance habitually, that substance is addictive.
(B) Fewer substances would be deemed addictive than are deemed so at present if an adequate definition of “addictive” were employed.
(C) A substance that some habitual users can cease to use with little or no psychological or physiological difficulty is addictive only if that is not true for most habitual users.
(D) A chemical substance habitually used by a person throughout life without significant psychological or physiological difficulty is nonaddictive.
(E) “Addiction” is a term that is impossible to define with precision.
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08 Apr 2017, 13:58
Took me almost 4 minutes. What's the source of this question.
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08 Apr 2017, 23:10
nahid78 wrote:
Took me almost 4 minutes. What's the source of this question.

The question is from old LSAT papers.
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09 Apr 2017, 01:49
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Top Contributor
some people's view point --

Any substance that at least some habitual users can cease to use is nonaddictive.

If this viewpoint is followed, some substances, classified as addictive by medical experts, might be classified as non addictive.

Medical experts + author's viewpoint --

Substance is addictive --> Withdrawal from its habitual use causes most users extreme psychological and physiological difficulty ------(1)

(Note that "only if" implies a necessary condition; just "if", on the other hand, implies a sufficient condition).

Let us take a look at the answer options --

Option A - Incorrect

A person experiences extreme psychological and physiological difficulty in ceasing to use a substance habitually --> substance is addictive

Note that this reverses condition#1 stated above. Also, this talks about "all users" whereas condition #1 talks about "most users".

Option B - Incorrect

We do not know what definition of "addictive" is employed currently.
However, if the definition proposed by medical experts (=adequate set of criteria) is employed over the one proposed by some people, then more substances would be classified as addictive.

Some habitual users can cease to use the substance with little or no psychological or physiological difficulty -- this condition SHOULD NOT BE TRUE FOR MOST HABITUAL USERS.

the actual condition then is --

Substance is addictive --> MOST habitual users CANNOT cease to use the substance with little or no psychological or physiological difficulty (Note that this is the necessary condition as indicated by "only if").

Option D - Incorrect

this option does not talk about "withdrawal from habitual use". Not relevant.

Option E - Incorrect

The author has never said that "addiction" is impossible to define with precision. Incorrect.
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09 Apr 2017, 20:53
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
some people's view point --

Any substance that at least some habitual users can cease to use is nonaddictive.

If this viewpoint is followed, some substances, classified as addictive by medical experts, might be classified as non addictive.

Medical experts + author's viewpoint --

Substance is addictive --> Withdrawal from its habitual use causes most users extreme psychological and physiological difficulty ------(1)

(Note that "only if" implies a necessary condition; just "if", on the other hand, implies a sufficient condition).

Let us take a look at the answer options --

Option A - Incorrect

A person experiences extreme psychological and physiological difficulty in ceasing to use a substance habitually --> substance is addictive

Note that this reverses condition#1 stated above. Also, this talks about "all users" whereas condition #1 talks about "most users".

Option B - Incorrect

We do not know what definition of "addictive" is employed currently.
However, if the definition proposed by medical experts (=adequate set of criteria) is employed over the one proposed by some people, then more substances would be classified as addictive.

Some habitual users can cease to use the substance with little or no psychological or physiological difficulty -- this condition SHOULD NOT BE TRUE FOR MOST HABITUAL USERS.

the actual condition then is --

Substance is addictive --> MOST habitual users CANNOT cease to use the substance with little or no psychological or physiological difficulty (Note that this is the necessary condition as indicated by "only if").

Option D - Incorrect

this option does not talk about "withdrawal from habitual use". Not relevant.

Option E - Incorrect

The author has never said that "addiction" is impossible to define with precision. Incorrect.

Thank you Crack verbal for explaination
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10 Apr 2017, 04:27
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
some people's view point --

Any substance that at least some habitual users can cease to use is nonaddictive.

If this viewpoint is followed, some substances, classified as addictive by medical experts, might be classified as non addictive.

Medical experts + author's viewpoint --

Substance is addictive --> Withdrawal from its habitual use causes most users extreme psychological and physiological difficulty ------(1)

(Note that "only if" implies a necessary condition; just "if", on the other hand, implies a sufficient condition).

Let us take a look at the answer options --

Option A - Incorrect

A person experiences extreme psychological and physiological difficulty in ceasing to use a substance habitually --> substance is addictive

Note that this reverses condition#1 stated above. Also, this talks about "all users" whereas condition #1 talks about "most users".

Dear CrackVerbal,

I can't see how there is reverse in logic in Choice A. Rather, I see that quote same sentence.

From prompt: only if withdrawal from its habitual use causes most users extreme psychological and physiological difficulty, then substance is addictive.

Choice A: If a person experiences extreme psychological and physiological difficulty in ceasing to use a substance habitually, then substance is addictive.

What is understand about reverse logic is the following:

If the substance is addictive, then withdrawal from its habitual use causes most users extreme psychological and physiological difficulty. This is not the case for choice A.

I see that choice A put it in general form 'a person' while in prompt we talk about 'most'. Also, using 'only if' for necessity and 'if' for sufficiency. Hence it is wrong.

Can you elaborate pls.
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10 Apr 2017, 06:29
Top Contributor
Mo2men wrote:
Dear CrackVerbal,

I can't see how there is reverse in logic in Choice A. Rather, I see that quote same sentence.

From prompt: only if withdrawal from its habitual use causes most users extreme psychological and physiological difficulty, then substance is addictive.

Choice A: If a person experiences extreme psychological and physiological difficulty in ceasing to use a substance habitually, then substance is addictive.

What is understand about reverse logic is the following:

If the substance is addictive, then withdrawal from its habitual use causes most users extreme psychological and physiological difficulty. This is not the case for choice A.

I see that choice A put it in general form 'a person' while in prompt we talk about 'most'. Also, using 'only if' for necessity and 'if' for sufficiency. Hence it is wrong.

Can you elaborate pls.

"only if" is used for necessary conditions; "if" for sufficient conditions.

That is what I meant by "reverse".

In the original this is the necessary condition -- "withdrawal from its habitual use causes most users extreme psychological and physiological difficulty".
In option A this, however, is the sufficient condition -- "a person experiences extreme psychological and physiological difficulty in ceasing to use a substance habitually".
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Re: Expert: What criteria distinguish addictive &nbs [#permalink] 10 Apr 2017, 06:29
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# Expert: What criteria distinguish addictive

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