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Expert witness: Ten times, and in controlled circumstances, [#permalink]
15 Sep 2005, 18:03
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Expert witness: Ten times, and in controlled circumstances, a single drop of the defendant's blood was allowed to fall onto the fabric. And in all ten cases, the stained area was much less than the expected 9.5 cm2. In fact, the stained area was always between 4.5 and 4.8 cm2. I conclude that a single drop of the defendant's blood stains much less than 9.5 cm2 of the fabric.
Which one of the following, if true, most undermines the value of the evidence for the expert witness's conclusion?
A) If similiar results had been found after 100 test drops of the defendant's blood, the evidence would be even stronger.
B) Expert witness have sometimes been known to fudge their data to accord with the prosecution's case.
C) In an eleventh test drop of the defendant's blood, the area stained was also less than 9.5 cm2 - this time staining 9.3 cm2.
D) Another person's blood was substituted, and in otherwide indentical circumstances, stained between 9.8 and 10.6 cms2 of the fabric.
E) Not all expert witnesses are the authorities in their fields that they claim to be.
Yeah, I got down to A and C on this one and took C. A doesn't hurt the argument as much as C does. C shows that the stain isn't substantially less than 9.5 and draws the expert's results into question.
OA is C. First things first. Any option with some in weakener question is considered a bad choice. By this, E and B becomes bad choices for weaken question. If you are surprised with E being qualified for Some, please note that "Not All" means not 100% and I have made a little adjustment while comparing "Not All" to "Some". Since, both "Not All" and "Some" can refer to a sample size of as less as 1% of sample, weakening options with these qualifiers are considered weak weakeners and are mostly distractions in weaken questions. "Not All" covers 0% to 99% sample "Some" covers 1% to 100% of sample
A is a strengthener as it supports the case in the event of further investigation. D is irrelevant leaving C as winner. What we have to understand is that 1) if 11th drop came increasingly near to 9.3 cm2, then 12th may become 9.8cm2 and thus destroy conclusion. 2) Conclusion says MUCH LESS. This is not the case with 9.3cm2
If you know what you're worth, then go out and get what you're worth. But you gotta be willing to take the hits, and not pointing fingers saying you ain't where you wanna be because of anybody! Cowards do that and You're better than that! The path is long, but self-surrender makes it short; the way is difficult, but perfect trust makes it easy. Fire the final bullet only when you are constantly hitting the Bull's eye, till then KEEP PRACTICING. Failure establishes only this, that our determination to succeed was not strong enough. Getting defeated is just a temporary notion, giving it up is what makes it permanent.