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# Verbal Expert Topic That “-ing” word probably isn’t a verb

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Re: Verbal Expert Topic That “-ing” word probably isn’t a verb  [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2018, 02:52
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Re: Verbal Expert Topic That “-ing” word probably isn’t a verb  [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2019, 09:49
Hello GMATNinja

I have a question, which needs to be resolved as the concept behind it is very confusing.
You gave us this example :
Walking through the forest, the pig happily hunted for truffles.

and then also mentioned that :
Notice that the "-ing" modifier must "make sense" with the subject, too: it's reasonable to say that the pig is capable of walking through the forest.

Until this point, I was good, but then there is a link that you have attached above and that link is about how verb-ing and verb-ed words can be parallel. Quoting the same;
Quote:
Here’s nice rundown of how “-ing” and “-ed words can be parallel to each other : https://gmatclub.com/forum/verb-ed-verb ... 26923.html

The sentence discussed in that post is as follows -
Quote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

In this question that has been discussed by egmat, Payal says that the portion underlined are the two characteristics of local time, but from what you explained above, I thought that the verb-ed modifier (determined) and the verb-ing modifier (differing) are modifying the "GROWTH of the railroads" and that didn't make sense to me and hence I crossed-out options D and E.

I am not able to understand, with that construction, that how do we determine whether those modifiers are modifying the subject of the sentence (Growth) or the noun (local times) that they immediately follow. If the latter one is correct, then is it not contradicting what you explained in the post above?

In anticipation of your explanation. Kind Regards!
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Re: Verbal Expert Topic That “-ing” word probably isn’t a verb  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2019, 01:26
Can any expert help me with my post above? (https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... l#p2267086)

Also as we know that :
Theory - When we have an independent clause followed by a participle phrase, the participle phrase modifies the subject of the sentence. Then why not in the sentence at hand?

Quote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

AjiteshArun chetan2u ChrisLele GMATNinja egmat VeritasKarishma RonPurewal mikemcgarry daagh
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Re: Verbal Expert Topic That “-ing” word probably isn’t a verb  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2019, 04:36
1
aalekhoza wrote:
Theory - When we have an independent clause followed by a participle phrase, the participle phrase modifies the subject of the sentence. Then why not in the sentence at hand?

Quote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
Let's look at "ing + comma" and "comma + ing" separately.

I agree that if the sentence starts with an "ing ,", that modifier applies to the clause that comes after it (hopefully with no other modifiers in the middle to make the sentence more difficult to read). However, we'll have to be a little more careful when trying to apply this to a situation in which the ", ing" comes after other structures in a sentence. In such a case, the ", ing" may not be directly associated with the main subject (of the entire sentence).

This post has an example that may help.

The correct option in the question that you linked to is:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

You can also take a look at the following example in GMATNinja 's post:
The angry politician, frustrated by the opposition’s parliamentary tactics and screaming about the other parties’ unconstitutional behavior, is both a hypocrite and a narcissist.

I'm not sure whether I've fully answered your question though. The main point is that we'll have to recognize that ", -ing" structures are not restricted in the way we might have thought they are.
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Re: Verbal Expert Topic That “-ing” word probably isn’t a verb  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2019, 08:30
1
aalekhoza wrote:
Can any expert help me with my post above? (https://gmatclub.com/forum/experts-topi ... l#p2267086)

Also as we know that :
Theory - When we have an independent clause followed by a participle phrase, the participle phrase modifies the subject of the sentence. Then why not in the sentence at hand?

Quote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Hi,

If I have understood your question, it concerns..
1) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city...
Here, you feel that determined and differing should modify the subject of the main clause, that is The growth of the railroads.

Yes, the verb+ed and verb+ing modifier modifies the subject of the clause or the action of the clause.
But be careful on what you consider as modifiers.
Here words ' determined' and 'differing' are parallel, but determined is preceded by 'was', so the terms are acting like normal verbs.
So, when you replace 'which' by what it modifies, the sentence becomes..
local times was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city

Hope it helps
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Re: Verbal Expert Topic That “-ing” word probably isn’t a verb  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2019, 08:51
1
Thank you so much for your reply AjiteshArun. I think MEANING is most critical part of the sentence, and maybe that is what you were trying to make me understand. Right?
I also understood the concept that you explained in the link that you have attached. If we apply the same flip technique in the sentence at hand :

Determined by...and Differing from city to city, the growth... This actually doesn't make any sense, though it makes complete sense when these two modifiers modify local time. I'll make a note of this :
Quote:
However, we'll have to be a little more careful when trying to apply this to a situation in which the ", ing" comes after other structures in a sentence. In such a case, the ", ing" may not be directly associated with the main subject (of the entire sentence)

Thanks again. Kind Regards!
Re: Verbal Expert Topic That “-ing” word probably isn’t a verb   [#permalink] 30 Apr 2019, 08:51

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# Verbal Expert Topic That “-ing” word probably isn’t a verb

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