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# First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a

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First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2012, 13:41
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First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

A. found in the Philippines and that resembles
B. found in the Philippines and that, resembling
C. found in the Philippines and resembling
D. that is found in the Philippines and it resembles
E. that is found in the Philippines, resembling
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2012, 13:51
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the two comparable elements of the original sentence are "found" and "that resembles". As originally expressed, these elements are not structured similarly - for "that resembles" to be correct, the earlier parallel element of the sentence would have to state "that is found." Eliminate A.

b. Parallel elements: "found" and "that, resembling" - Not parallel = Eliminate
c. Parallel elements: "found" and "resembling" - Parallel = Keep
d. Parallel elements: "that is found" and "it resembles" - Not parallel = Eliminate
e. Parallel elements: "that is found" and "resembling" - Not parallel = Eliminate

Hence C
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2013, 00:01
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First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and
that resembles
a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head; a brilliant orange patch, bordered with
red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye.

A. found in the Philippines and that resembles
B. found in the Philippines and that, resembling
C. found in the Philippines and resembling
D. that is found in the Philippines and it resembles
E. that is found in the Philippines, resembling

This question primarily concerns parallel construction: the two comparable elements of the original sentence are
"found" and "that resembles". As originally expressed, these elements are not structured similarly - for "that
resembles" to be correct, the earlier parallel element of the sentence would have to state "that is found." Since the
original sentence contains a provable error, eliminate answer choice A and ANY OTHERS ANSWER CHOICES THAT
REPEAT THE ORIGINAL ERROR.

Last edited by Zarrolou on 20 Jun 2013, 00:35, edited 2 times in total.
Merging similar topics.
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2013, 02:26
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The answer can as well be given in a little more complex way: This problem is a perfect example of: Participles.
Small Review:
A participle is a verbal (verb form) which is used as an adjective.
Generally,there are three participles that are commonly used as adjective:
1. the present participle(active voice); the past participle (passive voice) and the perfect participle (active voice). * The present participle always ends in ing *
2. The past participle usually ends in ed, d, t, n, or en.
3. The past participle of some of the verbs do not have distinctive endings: swum, gone, sung etc. *The perfect participle is always formed by prefixing the word having to the past participle: having sung, having driven, having seen etc

In the given sentence, we can clearly see that for the 1st participial phrase, the action of "found" happened in the past because Lina's sunbird was found more than 30 years ago. Further Lina's sunbird did not do any finding instead they were found by X not mentioned in the sentence so passive voice is right.

The second participial phrase starting with "resembling" implies that the "Lina's sunbird" is still resembling in the present (a present condition), so the use of present participle is better. We cannot say that the Lina's sunbird "resembled" because then this would illogically mean that they no longer resemble the humming bird.
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2013, 05:42
What's the sentence structure for this sentence? Can someone comment?

Is it something like this for the correct answer choice...

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal

1) found in the Philippines
2) and resembling a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2013, 06:18
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fozzzy wrote:
What's the sentence structure for this sentence? Can someone comment?

Is it something like this for the correct answer choice...

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal

1) found in the Philippines
2) and resembling a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head

First discovered more than 30 years ago, (-modifier-) Lina's sunbird (-subject-), a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird (-modifier-),has(-verb-) shimmering metallic colors on its head ;a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye. (-list of things-)

You are asked to complete the second modifier:

A. found in the Philippines and that resembles
Not parallel : "found" (modifier) "resembles" (verb)
D. that is found in the Philippines and it resembles
Not parallel, and moreover in a parallel list like this one, if the subject is the same, repeating the subject (and IT resembles) is considered redundant.

B. found in the Philippines and that, resembling
E. that is found in the Philippines, resembling
Those are not parallel as well "found/is found" and "resembling". ( and the comma + ing modifier is not used correctly)

C is parallel, and reminds us that the GMAT considers those modifiers perfectly parallel:
found in the Philippines and resembling
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2013, 02:22
one of my recent note works here..

"ed..and ing" structure !! feeling a good start of preparation
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2014, 01:55
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2015, 00:25
Zarrolou wrote:
fozzzy wrote:
What's the sentence structure for this sentence? Can someone comment?

Is it something like this for the correct answer choice...

First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal

1) found in the Philippines
2) and resembling a hummingbird, has shimmering metallic colors on its head

First discovered more than 30 years ago, (-modifier-) Lina's sunbird (-subject-), a four-and-a-half-inch animal found in the Philippines and that resembles a hummingbird (-modifier-),has(-verb-) shimmering metallic colors on its head ;a brilliant orange patch, bordered with red tufts, in the center of its breast; and a red eye. (-list of things-)

You are asked to complete the second modifier:

A. found in the Philippines and that resembles
Not parallel : "found" (modifier) "resembles" (verb)
D. that is found in the Philippines and it resembles
Not parallel, and moreover in a parallel list like this one, if the subject is the same, repeating the subject (and IT resembles) is considered redundant.

B. found in the Philippines and that, resembling
E. that is found in the Philippines, resembling
Those are not parallel as well "found/is found" and "resembling". ( and the comma + ing modifier is not used correctly)

C is parallel, and reminds us that the GMAT considers those modifiers perfectly parallel:
found in the Philippines and resembling

Lina's sunbird, a four-and-a-half-inch animal

"a four-and-a-half-inch animal" is modifying 'lina's sunbird' but isn't the part 'animal' ...found....and that resembles ...act as subject for 'found (modifier)' and resembles (verb).
Why do we have to discard option A on the pretext that "found" and that resembles' not parallel. Why do they have to be parallel in the first place if 'animal' acts as a subject?
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2015, 06:18
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earnit wrote:
Why do we have to discard option A on the pretext that "found" and that resembles' not parallel

Hi! This is because found in the Philippines is a phrase, while that resembles... is a clause.

From a parallelism perspective, a phrase is not grammatically similar to a clause.
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2015, 06:01
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Quote:
(1) Noun: When we use the verb+ing as a noun this is called a "gerund".
"Swimming is a great way to stay in shape."

(2) Verb: To be an actual verb, the present participle needs a helping verb such as is/are/was/were/will be/etc.
"We were swimming at the beach all day."

(3) Adjective (Noun Modifier): When the present participle is acting as an adjective, we attach it to the noun with NO COMMA (it can appear EITHER before OR after the noun).
"The fish swimming in the pond are beautiful." - we are describing the fish (they are the ones swimming)
"The swimming pool is a great place to cool off in the summer." - we are describing the pool (it is the swimming one)

(4) Adverb (Adverbial Modifier): When the present participle is acting as an adverb (modifying clauses or verbs), we attach it to the noun WITH A COMMA.
"We had a great day at the beach, swimming in the water and building sandcastles." - now we are describing the great day we had at the beach (it is telling more about the action), and both swimming and building are parallel.

Now, let's compare these to the answer choices.

(a) "resembles" is a verb and part of the "that" clause. This is NOT parallel to the noun modifier "found"(which animal? the one found..."). By the way, "found" is a past participle and can do basically the same jobs as a present participle.

(b) ", resembling" is an adverb, so it must modify the clause or phrase preceding it (that...has shining metallic colors) - so the resembling describes how it has a shining metallic color on its head. This is strange, but more importantly isn't really in line with the meaning of the sentence.

(c) "and resembling" is a noun modifier and is correctly parallel to the noun modifier "found". (which animal? the one resembling a hummingbird.)

(d) "and it resembles" is a main verb and IS parallel to "is found" BUT the presence of the "it" breaks the overall parallelism within the "that" clause. (I should be able to switch the items in a list...THAT X AND Y....So would we say: "That it resembles and is found"? NO the "it" doesn't work!

(e) ", resembling" is an adverb, so it must modify the clause or phrase preceding it (that is found in the Philippines"), so now saying "resembling a hummingbird" is telling us more about how it was found in the Philippines, which doesn't make any sense.

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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2015, 06:31
Found is a verb+ed modifier , resembling is in the form verb+ing. Verb+ed modifier is parallel to Verb+ing.
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2015, 01:51

The structure of this sentence requires parallel construction: the two comparable elements of the original sentence are
"found" and "that resembles". As originally expressed, these elements are not structured similarly - for "that
resembles" to be correct, the earlier parallel element of the sentence would have to state "that is found." Since the
original sentence contains a provable error, eliminate answer choice A and ANY OTHERS ANSWER CHOICES THAT
REPEAT THE ORIGINAL ERROR.

b. Parallel elements: "found" and "that, resembling" - Not parallel = Eliminate
--introducing that
c. Parallel elements: "found" and "resembling" - Parallel = Keep
d. Parallel elements: "that is found" and "it resembles" - Not parallel = Eliminate
e. Parallel elements: "that is found" and "resembling" - Not parallel = Eliminate
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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2016, 02:12
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2017, 05:39
In this sentence we're supposed to find a correct pair, the one would be:
Verb-ed/Verb-ing;
Verb-ing/Verb-ing;
Clause/Clause modifier

A. Verb-ed modifier/Verb Incorrect.
B. Verb-ed modifier/Clause Incorrect.
C. Verb-ed modifier/Verb-ing modifier Correct one.
D. Clause/Verb Incorrect.
E. Clause/Verb-ing modifier Incorrect.
Re: First discovered more than 30 years ago, Lina's sunbird, a   [#permalink] 25 Apr 2017, 05:39
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